Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 666

   Table of Contents     
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 2-6

Understanding implantation window, a crucial phenomenon

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission13-Mar-2012
Date of Decision13-Mar-2012
Date of Acceptance15-Mar-2012
Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2012

Correspondence Address:
Pratap Kumar
Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.97777

Rights and Permissions



Embryo implantation is a well-defined and precise process, in which various factors come into play one after the other. There is only a specific period of time during which implantation is possible i.e. "implantation window". Selectins were proposed to have an important role in this phase to ensure suitable rolling of the blastocyst. To prevent the blastocyst from adhering to an area with poor chances of implantation, an important role is played by the repellent activity of MUC-1, which is widely expressed throughout the endometrium and, surprisingly, even increases before implantation. In particular endometrial areas, secretion of chemokines and growth factors will attract the blastocyst to landing platforms known as pinopods. These pinopods are fully developed for only 1 or 2 days and extend over the tips of the microvilli expressing the repellent MUC-1. At this stage, adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins intervene to ensure adhesiveness between the embryo and the endometrium.

Keywords: Cellular adhesion molecule family, decidua, implantation

How to cite this article:
Sharma A, Kumar P. Understanding implantation window, a crucial phenomenon. J Hum Reprod Sci 2012;5:2-6

How to cite this URL:
Sharma A, Kumar P. Understanding implantation window, a crucial phenomenon. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2023 Jan 29];5:2-6. Available from:

This has been retracted as the sections in the text have been directly copied from a previously published article, entitled, "Endometrial receptivity markers, the journey to successful embryo implantation," in pages 731-746, Issue 6, Vol. 12 of Human Reproduction Update.

This article has been cited by
1 Gene pathway analysis of the endometrium at the start of the window of implantation in women with unexplained infertility and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: is unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss a subset of unexplained infertility?
Irem Demiral Keles, Tuba Günel, Bahar Yüksel Özgör, Ege Ülgen, Ece Gümüsoglu, Mohammad Kazem Hosseini, Ugur Sezerman, Faruk Buyru, John Yeh, Ercan Bastu
Human Fertility. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Podocalyxin molecular characteristics and endometrial expression: high conservation between humans and macaques but divergence in mice
Bothidah Thach, Nirukshi Samarajeewa, Ying Li, Sophea Heng, Tesha Tsai, Mulyoto Pangestu, Sally Catt, Guiying Nie
Biology of Reproduction. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Evolutionary divergence of embryo implantation in primates
Dylan Siriwardena, Thorsten E. Boroviak
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2022; 377(1865)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Morphological features of endometrial pinopodia formation during the luteal phase in women with previous unsuccessful implantation
Y.G. Antypkin, O.O. Lytvak, O.G. Kuryk, G.P. Pasichnyk, Y.M. Bondarenko
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Subsequent Fertility in Women Treated for Caesarean Scar Pregnancy With Hysteroscopy: A 5-Year Follow-Up Descriptive Study in a Tertiary Hospital
Xinyi Sun, Yang Liu, Yunhui Tang, Hongying Yu, Min Zhao, Qi Chen
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 NiO/CeO2-Sm2O3 nanocomposites for partial oxidation of methane: In-situ experiments by dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Lucía M. Toscani, Marina S. Bellora, Cristián Huck-Iriart, Analía L. Soldati, Joaquín Sacanell, Tereza S. Martins, Aldo F. Craievich, Márcia C.A. Fantini, Susana A. Larrondo, Diego G. Lamas
Applied Catalysis A: General. 2021; 626: 118357
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 The emerging role of leukemia inhibitory factor in cancer and therapy
Cen Zhang, Juan Liu, Jianming Wang, Wenwei Hu, Zhaohui Feng
Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2021; 221: 107754
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Building a stem cell-based primate uterus
Sophie Bergmann, Magdalena Schindler, Clara Munger, Christopher A. Penfold, Thorsten E. Boroviak
Communications Biology. 2021; 4(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 MicroRNAs in Small Extracellular Vesicles Indicate Successful Embryo Implantation during Early Pregnancy
Qiang Tan, Shuang Shi, Jingjie Liang, Xiaowei Zhang, Dingren Cao, Zhengguang Wang
Cells. 2020; 9(3): 645
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Ultrastructural Evaluation of Eutopic Endometrium of Infertile Women With and Without Endometriosis During the Window of Implantation: A Pilot Study
Michele G. Da Broi, Carlos V. Rocha, Filomena M. Carvalho, Wellington P. Martins, Rui A. Ferriani, Paula A. Navarro
Reproductive Sciences. 2017; 24(10): 1469
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Endometrial Scratch Injury Induces Higher Pregnancy Rate for Women With Unexplained Infertility Undergoing IUI With Ovarian Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Ahmed M. Maged, Hesham Al-Inany, Khaled M. Salama, Ibrahim I. Souidan, Hesham M. Abo Ragab, Noura Elnassery
Reproductive Sciences. 2016; 23(2): 239
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Mouse Endometrium Temporal and Spatial Expression mRNA and MicroRNA Associated With Embryo Implantation
Ke Chen, Xuemei Chen, Junlin He, Yubin Ding, Yanqing Geng, Shangjing Liu, Xueqing Liu, Yingxiong Wang
Reproductive Sciences. 2015; 22(11): 1399
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Expression, activation, and role of AKT isoforms in the uterus
F. Fabi,E. Asselin
Reproduction. 2014; 148(5): R85
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Molecular basis of thyrotropin and thyroid hormone action during implantation and early development
M. Colicchia,L. Campagnolo,E. Baldini,S. Ulisse,H. Valensise,C. Moretti
Human Reproduction Update. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Ovarian stimulation using human chorionic gonadotrophin impairs blastocyst implantation and decidualization by altering ovarian hormone levels and downstream signaling in mice
K. Ezoe,T. Daikoku,A. Yabuuchi,N. Murata,H. Kawano,T. Abe,T. Okuno,T. Kobayashi,K. Kato
Molecular Human Reproduction. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Fetal programming theory: Implication for the understanding of endometriosis
Hiroshi Kobayashi,Kana Iwai,Emiko Niiro,Sachiko Morioka,Yuki Yamada
Human Immunology. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Mucins help to avoid alloreactivity at the maternal fetal interface
Redzovic, A. and Laskarin, G. and Dominovic, M. and Haller, H. and Rukavina, D.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2013; 2013(542152)
18 Mucins Help to Avoid Alloreactivity at the Maternal Fetal Interface
Arnela Redzovic,Gordana Laskarin,Marin Dominovic,Herman Haller,Daniel Rukavina
Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (359 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded646    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 18    

Recommend this journal