Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 3366

   Table of Contents     
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 227-234

Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation

1 Division of Gynaecology, Krishna IVF Clinic, Visakhapatnam, India
2 Department of Pharmacology Medical Affairs, Merck Specialities Private Limited, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Reproductive medicine, Infertility Institute and Research Centre, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Infertility, Gunasheela Assisted Reproduction Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Reproductive Medicine,NOVA IVI Fertility, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
6 Department of Reproductive Medicine,Prashanth Fertility Research Centre, Chennai, India
7 Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine, Womens Center and Hospitals, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
8 Department of Infertility, Akanksha IVF, Anand, Gujarat, India
9 Department of Assisted Reproduction, Fertility Associates, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission09-Aug-2013
Date of Decision14-Sep-2013
Date of Acceptance06-Nov-2013
Date of Web Publication3-Feb-2014

Correspondence Address:
Gottumukkala Achyuta Rama Raju
Krishna IVF Clinic, ZP Junction, Maharanipeta, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: Advisory board meetings supported by Merck Specialties Private Limited, Conflict of Interest: This review article is the result of a series of advisory board meetings supported by Merck Specialties Private Limited

DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.126285

Rights and Permissions



Luteinizing hormone (LH) in synergy with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates normal follicular growth and ovulation. FSH is frequently used in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Recent studies have facilitated better understanding on the complementary role of the LH to FSH in regulation of the follicle; however, role of LH in stimulation of follicle, optimal dosage of LH in stimulation and its importance in advanced aged patients has been a topic of discussion among medical fraternity. Though the administration of exogenous LH with FSH is obligatory for controlled ovarian stimulation in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, there is still a paucity of information of its usage in other patient population. In this review we looked in to the multiple roles that LH plays complementary to FSH to better understand the LH requirement in patients undergoing ART.

Keywords: Assisted reproductive techniques, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, ovarian hyper-stimulation

How to cite this article:
Rama Raju GA, Chavan R, Deenadayal M, Gunasheela D, Gutgutia R, Haripriya G, Govindarajan M, Patel NH, Patki AS. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation. J Hum Reprod Sci 2013;6:227-34

How to cite this URL:
Rama Raju GA, Chavan R, Deenadayal M, Gunasheela D, Gutgutia R, Haripriya G, Govindarajan M, Patel NH, Patki AS. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2013 [cited 2023 Feb 3];6:227-34. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays a key role in gonadal function. LH in synergy with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates follicular growth and ovulation. Thus, normal follicular growth is the result of complementary action of FSH and LH.

FSH is frequently used in assisted reproductive technology (ART). The most commonly used protocol in ART consists of controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH) with daily injections of recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) to induce multiple follicle growth in the ovaries. To prevent premature LH surge and premature ovulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist is injected daily. The pituitary down-regulation (endogenous pituitary suppression) that is achieved with GnRH analogs creates an environment where LH is deficient or very low and which may be detrimental to the development of normal healthy follicles. It has been shown that growing follicles become increasingly sensitive to and ultimately dependent on, the presence of LH for their development. [1] Documented results associate poorer outcomes with patients whose LH concentration was low, after pituitary suppression was achieved with GnRH analog treatment. [2],[3]

The availability of recombinant human LH (r-hLH) has paved a way for supplementation of LH in down-regulated IVF cycles. Several recent studies have evlauated the role of r-LH in women undergoing GnRH analog/r-hFSH therapy and IVF and observed variable results. One such study observed that supplementation with r-hLH showed lower levels of cumulus cell apoptosis than treatment with FSH alone, possibly indicating improved oocyte quality in LH-supplemented cycles. [4] Reduction in apoptosis of cumulus cells in the r-hLH group might be the result of lower levels of follicular fluid vascular endothelial growth factor (FF VEGF-marker of maturity and quality of occytes) that is produced by granulosa and theca cells in response to FSH, LH, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and proliferative and apoptotic factors. [4],[5] All these studies point that LH may be crucial in COH. The poor outcome of COH includes increased age (above 35 years), poor ovarian reserve, poor response to previous ART cycles, genetic variations and hormonal status majorly LH, FSH, estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). [6] Overall, these studies suggest that LH supplementation could be beneficial for a particular sub-population, including older patients and poor responders. This might be due to the better ooctye quality resulting from a restored follicle at the end of stimulation in these ART patients. [7] These findings reinforce that the use of the r-hLH in ART should be guided by a rationale that is based on the need of the patient.

Although recent researches have facilitated better understanding of supplementation of LH with FSH hormone and effect on fertilization and implantation, there is still a paucity of information on its usage in ART patients. In this review, we looked into the multiple roles that LH plays complementary to FSH to better understand the LH requirement in patients undergoing ART.

   Role of LH In Physiology: The Physiological Hormonal Interplay Top

"Two-cell, two-gonadotropin" theory

The ovary comprises of two cellular components, which are stimulated independently by LH and FSH, leading to the production of ovarian steroids. [8],[9] Androgen production from cholesterol and release during folliculogenesis is dependent on the stimulation of the theca cells by LH and FSH [Figure 1]. This is universally recognized as the key driver of ovarian follicle growth and maturation. [10]
Figure 1: Two-cell, two-gonadotropin theory

Click here to view

Ovarian steroidogenesis in the preovulatory follicle takes place through LH receptors on theca and FSH (possibly plus LH) receptors on granulosa cells. [11] The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR protein) is the primary regulator of production of androstenedione, which subsequently diffuses into granulosa cells to serve as an estrogen precursor. In the preovulatory follicle, cholesterol in theca cells arises from circulating lipoproteins and de novo biosynthesis. [12],[13]

FSH is responsible for follicular growth and estrogen formation. FSH may be crucial at an earlier stage of follicular development, perhaps earlier in the follicular phase, to induce the aromatase enzyme that converts androgen to estradiol. [14] During the later stages of follicular growth [Figure 1], activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH. [15]

Concept of follicle stimulating hormone threshold and role of luteinizing hormone

The concept of the FSH "threshold" proposed by Brown postulated that in gonadotropin therapy, the ovary has a minimum requirement level (threshold requirement) for FSH below which follicular development does not occur. [16] More recent studies also confirm that follicular growth does not occur below the threshold levels.

Following optimum FSH stimulation, there is follicular recruitment, growth, selection and dominance. Subsequent development of this cohort during the follicular phase becomes dependent on continued stimulation by gonadotropins. Increasing FSH concentrations should surpass the threshold level to initiate the final gonadotropin-dependent phase of follicular growth [Figure 2]. [17]
Figure 2: Follicle stimulating hormone threshold and recruitment window

Click here to view

There is a secretion of increasing amounts of estradiol during this phase. The peripheral estradiol levels are increased with feedback inhibition of FSH secretion. The maturing follicle inhibits FSH secretion leading to a fall in its levels below threshold, thus stopping less mature follicles from maturing. [18]

Further, it has been shown that FSH threshold is not fixed for any given follicle, but depends on the developmental stage and varies over time. [17],[18] The follicles exhibit different degrees of FSH sensitivity at the time of recruitment; highest need for FSH is at the early antral stage and declines in the late antral stage. The follicle with the highest sensitivity will benefit most from increasing FSH levels and will subsequently gain dominance. [18]

The suggested reasons for the response of ovarian follicles to certain FSH level than to a specific dose are fluctuating levels of the endogenous production of gonadotropin, [16] and up-regulation of its receptors due to FSH administration. [17]

Although FSH can induce follicular growth even without LH, there is evidence that the follicles may have developmental deficiencies like abnormally reduced estradiol production and lack of ability to luteinize and rupture, following hCG stimulus. [19] Hence, a certain amount of LH exposure is necessary for optimal follicular development.

Another possibility is that FSH stimulates the production of progesterone by driving cholesterol conversion into the steroid pathway. [20],[21],[22],[23],[24] Early increased exposure to progesterone can advance the endometrium, leading to asynchrony of embryo development to endometrial development and the reduction of implantation. LH stimulates the conversion of progesterone into androgens, which can be further aromatized to estrogens. The addition of LH may benefit the endometrium by decreasing the risk of a premature progesterone increase and therefore improve the likelihood of implantation and clinical pregnancy. [23],[24]

Concept of luteinizing hormone therapeutic window

The concept of the LH therapeutic window has been explained in brief in [Figure 3]. Though studies support the use of r-hLH in addition to r-hFSH in GnRH antagonist protocols in ovarian follicular development, these studies are fewer in number. There is also no clear cut guideline regarding the optimum levels of serum LH and timing of its supplementation are fewer in number. This is an area that warrants further research. [6] Studies have shown that serum LH levels should be between 1.2 IU/L and 5.0 IU/L, [8] for optimal development follicle in cycles where endogenous LH is suppressed. [6],[19]
Figure 3: Luteinizing hormone therapeutic window

Click here to view

Some of the recent studies suggest that the indicators for adding LH to an ART cycle are mid follicular (day 6) hypo-response to long GnRH agonist, no follicles > 10 mm, E2 < 200 pg/ml, endometrial thickness < 6 mm and baseline serum LH < 1.2 IU/ml on day 6. [8],[25]

A recent meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) done by Hill et al. on the use of LH in ART in advanced patient age group concluded that five RCTs were in favor of adding LH in ART therapy in patients of advanced age group. [26] However, it is critical that add-back LH is administered in appropriate patients as an excess of LH can cause suppression of granulosa cells and follicular atresia. [6],[26]

Pharmacogenomics and ovarian stimulation

Follicle stimulating hormone polymorphism

The FSH receptor (FSHR) gene is thought to play a significant role in the success of ovarian stimulation and can be used as a marker to predict differences in FSHR function and ovarian response to FSH. Patients with unfavorable genotypes are reported to require higher doses of r-hFSH to overcome relative ovarian insensitivity. The FSHR gene contains two important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 10, which are in linkage disequilibrium and change two amino acids at positions 307 and 680. Women with the 307 Ala and 680 Ser SNPs are associated with reduced COH outcomes, the 680 SNP Series specifically associated with lower clinical pregnancy. These patients when undergoing ART are characterized by higher basal FSH serum concentrations, higher administered amounts of FSH required and higher risks of hypo- or hyper-responses. Up to 35% of patients requiring ART are detected with alternatively spliced FSHR products. Genotyping the FSHR Asn680Ser SNP, together with some additional novel markers (e.g. transcript levels), may therefore provide a means of identifying a group of poor responders before infertility treatment is initiated. [27],[28]

Luteinizing hormone polymorphism

The LH receptor gene is known to carry as many as 282 SNPs. [29] In 1991, Pettersson and Söderholm identified a common genetic LHβ variant or v-βLH owing to the alterations in two polymorphic base changes in the β subunit gene leading to changes in the amino acid sequence, Trp8Arg and Ile15Thr. They had initially suggested this discovery as an immunological anomalous LH form. [30],[31]

The short half-life of v-βLH may be linked to the presence of extra glycosylation signal into the β subunit that could lead to an addition of the second oligosaccharide to Asn13 of the β protein. It has been found that there is more potency of the overall LH activity of v-βLH at the receptor site; however, its duration is shorter in vivo. [32] Previous clinical trials conducted to determine the impact of this variant on reproductive health reported its association with ovulatory disorders, premature ovarian failure, hyperprolactinemia, luteal insufficiency, menstrual disorders, endometriosis and infertility. [33] An observational study noted low response in some women following ovarian stimulation, resulting in a greater need for r-hFSH (>2500 IU). [32] In another preliminary study, the total r-hFSH consumption was elevated during ovarian stimulation due to the presence of v-βLH. [31] Based on the findings, the researchers indicated the potential of v-βLH as a marker of ovarian responsiveness to r-hFSH. This role of v-βLH, if validated by further research, could thus facilitate clinicians in identifying patients requiring exogenous LH addition during ovarian stimulation. [32]

Optimizing follicle stimulating hormone dosing

Various studies suggest four parameters of FSH administration management involved in the risk of multifollicular development: (a) the choice of the FSH starting dose, [34],[35] (b) the duration of the starting, dose before stepping up or stepping down, [34],[36] (c) the rate of increase in FSH dose at each increment [37] and (d) the reduction of the FSH dose once a follicle has been selected. [38]

In an attempt to prevent the risks of overstimulation and multiple pregnancies, it is crucial to use a low starting dose of FSH, [37] and to use small increments in the daily dosage. [34],[36],[37]

Exogenous luteinizing hormone supplementation

LH is important in regulating steroidogenesis throughout follicular development; adequate LH is particularly important for oocyte maturation. [39] Most of the Asian assisted reproduction practitioners make use of both long agonist and antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation; majority using the former approach. Published literature on the beneficial effects of exogenous LH in patients with previous suboptimal response or low baseline serum LH concentrations is more extensive in long agonist protocols. [5],[40] Documented results associate poorer outcomes with patients whose LH concentration was low after GnRH agonist treatment. [3],[40]

The Asia Pacific Fertility Advisory Group [6] in 2011 strongly recommended r-hLH co-treatment with r-hFSH in patients with a history of poor response as in:

  1. Suboptimal response on day 6 in long agonist cycles

    • absence of >10 mm follicles
    • endometrial thickness of <6 mm
    • estradiol levels <200 pg/mL

  2. r-hLH may also be beneficial in women aged >35 years undergoing ovarian stimulation with long agonist or antagonist protocols. [6]

Poor responders and low ovarian reserve

Many factors are linked to a decreased ovarian response and hence, it is difficult to identify poor responders. Although several tests have been suggested, none can indicate it accurately. [41]

Some putative biomarkers to identify poor responders include (i) LH concentrations either at baseline or day 6 midfollicular (ii) AMH levels and (iii) antral follicle count (AFC). Wong et al. recommended that further research is needed in patients with suboptimal response based on the following biomarkers: (i) AFC < 6 in both ovaries; (ii) AMH concentration <1.5 ng/mL; and (iii) LH polymorphisms. [6]

Poor ovarian reserve is estimated to occur in about 9-26% of the ART procedures. Evidence indicates that r-hLH and r-hFSH co-administration in these patients may help in improving ongoing pregnancy rates in poor responders and women of advanced age. [7],[26],[42],[43] However, further studies are needed in this regard as some studies report that the available evidence is not enough to validate the effectiveness of r-hLH in subjects with poor response undergoing ART. [44],[45]

Advanced reproductive aged patients

A recent systemic review and meta-analysis concluded that the inclusion of r-hLH to FSH stimulation enhanced the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in ART cycles in patients aged ≥35 years. [42] Similar results were reported in many other randomized trials. [7],[26] Similarly, a Cochrane review reiterated the usefulness of r-hLH in poor responders and advanced aged women at risk of spontaneous miscarriage. [46]

An open-label randomized controlled study found that r-hLH is beneficial in improving the implantation rate in women aged 36-39 years, but not so in those younger than 36 years of age. [7] This might be due to the fact that the serum androgen levels decline steeply with age, as does the response to FSH stimulation. LH administration enhances follicular androgen production followed by its aromatization to estrogen. It also controls progesterone production by granulosa cells, which is also FSH dependent. Several studies correlated the occurrence of apoptosis in granulosa cells with the IVF outcome. The incidence of apoptosis was lower in granulosa cells of follicles aspirated from patients who became pregnant after ivf cycle compared with granulosa cells of follicles aspirated from patients who are non-pregnant. [47],[48] Bencomo et al. reported that, the percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly less in younger age group (<38 years) compared with older age group (>38 years) and further suggested that apoptosis may be a marker for ovarian age or reserve as granulosa cells of older women are more susceptible to apoptosis. [49] In a study by Ruvolo et al. shown that the r-LH administration resulted in a reduction in the apoptosis observed in the cumulus cells of the patients whose clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate was significantly high compared with the non-r-LH administered group. [4] The beneficial effect of LH was attributed to its direct action on cumulus and granulosa cells, or by the paracrine effect mediated by secreting factors in the theca and oocyte cells viz. by inducing the expression of epidermal growth factor in the theca cell, which has a reported antiapoptotic activity. Recently Gatta et al. studied the gene expression profiles of cumulus cells obtained from r-LH treated patients and found that 84 genes were up regulated with the following cellular function: gene expression, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular growth and proliferation, cell cycle, morphology and death, inflammatory response and molecular transport. [50] Data from the above recent studies indicated the significance of LH at cellular and molecular pathways. Thus, LH supplementation seems appropriate for aged patients and poor responders where it restores the follicular and endometrial milieu and improves the cycle outcome. [39],[51]

Another retrospective observational study evaluating ART patients undergoing stimulation with an antagonist procedure reported clinical pregnancy success of 36% for patients aged 38 years treated with r-hFSH and r-hLH compared with 19.1% (P = 0.048) for those stimulated with r-hFSH and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG). [52] Conversely there were two studies, Fabregues et al. and Nyboeandersen et al. who found no benefit in supplementing rLH in the GnRH agonist long protocol.

Role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

The detrimental impact of endocrinological disorder, which is linked to hyper-secretion of LH and ovulatory dysfunction, is attributed to increased LH levels. Studies have found that such women are associated with poor fertilization, oocyte quality and embryo quality, which could be due to underlying mechanisms such as androgen excess induced by LH. However, contrary to previous belief, it was later demonstrated that hyper-insulinemia and not LH hyper-secretion plays a vital role in PCOS pathogenesis. [53] Adding LH in this scenario would lead to OHSS and hence LH should be avoided.

Role of luteinizing hormone

LH supplementation is important in older and poor-responding patients because they usually receive higher FSH doses for COS, show higher progesterone levels at the end of stimulation and subsequently, their endometrium receptivity diminishes. [7] Previous studies have shown the benefical effects of LH supplementation in older patients. [6],[7]

Dosing of luteinizing hormone

In 1998, the European Study Group conducted the first randomized efficacy clinical study to investigate the safety and tolerability of r-hLH supplementation in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women (WHO group 1 anovulation). The researchers also aimed to assess the minimal effective dose for this patient population. The patients (n = 38) randomly received daily injections of 0 IU, 25 IU, 75 IU, or 225 IU of r-hLH in conjunction with 150 IU r-hFSH/day for up to 20 days. The results were showed that r-hLH helped in:

  • Promoting dose-associated increase in the secretion of estradiol and androstenedione by r-hFSH-induced follicles.
  • Enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH as observed in the number of patients who developed follicles following FSH administration.
  • Increasing the successful luteinization of follicles on exposure to hCG.

It was observed that 75 IU r-hLH promoted adequate follicular development and steriodogenesis in 46% of the treatment cycles, with sufficient secretion of estrogen and progesterone in 75-80% of the cycles. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended that 75 IU r-hLH is effective in most of the women by facilitating maximal endometrial growth and optimal follicular development, which is defined as:

  • ≥1 follicle of ≥17 mm.
  • Estradiol levels of ≥400 pmol/L.
  • Mid-luteal phase progesterone level of ≥25 nmol/L.

Furthermore, they suggested that a small percentage of women may require up to 225 IU of r-hLH/day subcutaneously, but emphasized that the high dose of r-hLH was also found to be immunogenic and well tolerated. [54] To achieve an optimal benefit Ramu et al. suggested a dose of 75 IU/day of r-hLH for supplementation with r-HFSH. [25]

The widely used dosage is a ratio of 2:1 for FSH: LH, i.e., 150 IU: 75 IU starting on day 1 or 6 of stimulation, especially in hypo-hypo patients. [6] A study carried out by Lisi et al., shown that the administration of r-hLH (75 IU/day for 4 days), 1 day before the beginning r-hFSH stimulation, offers some benefits in terms of clinical pregnancies when compared with the patients undergoing stimulation with r-hFSH alone. [55] Though starting patients with r-hLH on day 1 maximizes the benefit of increased ovarian androgen production triggered due to the presence of the exogenous LH, it acts synergistically with FSH to promote FSH receptor mRNA expression, follicular development and steroidogenesis. [51]

Numerous studies have demonstrated that r-hLH in combination with FSH is better than hMG with FSH. This might be due to excessive or inconsistent LH activity from the hCG component in hMG may affect ocyte maturation in the latter half of the ovarian stimulation cycle, giving rise to the differences in numbers of oocytes retrieved and success of pregnancy. [56],[57]

   Conclusion Top

Optimal follicle development with subsequent ovulation requires the complex interaction of FSH, LH and their complementary activities. Low endogenous LH production may lead to a poor outcome of ART. Exogenous LH specifically in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and patients >35 years may result in improved assisted reproduction outcomes. However, the dosage of LH is critical as elevated LH might have detrimental effects on ART. Thus, ART outcome can be improved with optimization of FSH dose in various patient populations and supplementation of LH in various subgroups discussed above. Biomarkers to ascertain women who are in need of exogenous LH need to be sought. With the increasing evidence of pharmacogenetic approaches, it is likely that the choice of ART regimen will be also guided by patient's genetic makeup. We suggest that before deciding on use of exogenous LH, it is crucial to identify patients who would benefit the most from LH supplementation and assess the cost-benefit ratio in the use of exogenous LH. Further research is needed to arrive at a clear and uniform consensus on dosage, timing and patient population who would benefit the most with LH supplementation.

   Acknowledgments Top

The authors are grateful to acknowledge Knowledge Isotopes ( for editing support.

   References Top

1.Shoham Z. The clinical therapeutic window for luteinizing hormone in controlled ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril 2002;77:1170-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Humaidan P, Bungum L, Bungum M, Andersen CY. Ovarian response and pregnancy outcome related to mid-follicular LH levels in women undergoing assisted reproduction with GnRH agonist down-regulation and recombinant FSH stimulation. Hum Reprod 2002;17:2016-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Lahoud R, Al-Jefout M, Tyler J, Ryan J, Driscoll G. A relative reduction in mid-follicular LH concentrations during GnRH agonist IVF/ICSI cycles leads to lower live birth rates. Hum Reprod 2006;21:2645-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Ruvolo G, Bosco L, Pane A, Morici G, Cittadini E, Roccheri MC. Lower apoptosis rate in human cumulus cells after administration of recombinant luteinizing hormone to women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization procedures. Fertil Steril 2007;87:542-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Pezzuto A, Ferrari B, Coppola F, Nardelli GB. LH supplementation in down-regulated women undergoing assisted reproduction with baseline low serum LH levels. Gynecol Endocrinol 2010;26:118-24.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Wong PC, Qiao J, Ho C, Ramaraju GA, Wiweko B, Takehara Y, et al. Current opinion on use of luteinizing hormone supplementation in assisted reproduction therapy: An Asian perspective. Reprod Biomed Online 2011;23:81-90.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Bosch E, Labarta E, Crespo J, Simón C, Remohí J, Pellicer A. Impact of luteinizing hormone administration on gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles: An age-adjusted analysis. Fertil Steril 2011;95:1031-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.O'Dea L, O'Brien F, Currie K, Hemsey G. Follicular development induced by recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in anovulatory women with LH and FSH deficiency: Evidence of a threshold effect. Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24:2785-93.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Vaskivuo T. Regulation of Apoptosis in the Female Reproductive System. PhD [dissertation]. Oulu, Finland: University of Oulu; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Brown JB. Pituitary control of ovarian function - Concepts derived from gonadotrophin therapy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;18:46-54.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Gonçalves PB, Portela VM, Ferreira R, Gasperin BG. Role of angiotensin II on follicle development and ovulation. Anim Reprod 2010;7:140-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Kronenberg HM, Memed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11 th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12 th ed. PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Fortune JE, Quirk SM. Regulation of steroidogenesis in bovine preovulatory follicles. J Anim Sci 1988;66 Suppl 2:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Richards JS, Pangas SA. The ovary: Basic biology and clinical implications. J Clin Invest 2010;120:963-72.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.De Souza MJ, Miller BE, Loucks AB, Luciano AA, Pescatello LS, Campbell CG, et al. High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: Blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during luteal-follicular transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:4220-32.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Fauser BC, Van Heusden AM. Manipulation of human ovarian function: Physiological concepts and clinical consequences. Endocr Rev 1997;18:71-106.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Sullivan MW, Stewart-Akers A, Krasnow JS, Berga SL, Zeleznik AJ. Ovarian responses in women to recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH): A role for LH in the final stages of follicular maturation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:228-32.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Loumaye E, Engrand P, Shoham Z, Hillier SG, Baird DT. Clinical evidence for an LH 'ceiling' effect induced by administration of recombinant human LH during the late follicular phase of stimulated cycles in World Health Organization type I and type II anovulation. Hum Reprod 2003;18:314-22.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Bosch E, Labarta E, Crespo J, Simón C, Remohí J, Jenkins J, et al. Circulating progesterone levels and ongoing pregnancy rates in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles for in vitro fertilization: Analysis of over 4000 cycles. Hum Reprod 2010;25:2092-100.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Bosch E, Valencia I, Escudero E, Crespo J, Simón C, Remohí J, et al. Premature luteinization during gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles and its relationship with in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertil Steril 2003;80:1444-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Filicori M, Cognigni GE, Pocognoli P, Tabarelli C, Spettoli D, Taraborrelli S, et al. Modulation of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in women by graded menotrophin administration. Hum Reprod 2002;17:2009-15.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Palermo R. Differential actions of FSH and LH during folliculogenesis. Reprod Biomed Online 2007;15:326-37.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Voutilainen R, Tapanainen J, Chung BC, Matteson KJ, Miller WL. Hormonal regulation of P450scc (20,22-desmolase) and P450c17 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) in cultured human granulosa cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986;63:202-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Raju GA, Teng SC, Kavitha P, Lakshmi BK, Ravikrishna C. Combination of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone with human menopausal gonadotrophin or recombinant luteinizing hormone in a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol: a retrospective study. Reprod Med Biol 2012;11:129-33.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Hill MJ, Levy G, Levens ED. Does exogenous LH in ovarian stimulation improve assisted reproduction success? An appraisal of the literature. Reprod Biomed Online 2012;24:261-71.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Simoni M, Tempfer CB, Destenaves B, Fauser BC. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders: Part I: Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian response. Hum Reprod Update 2008;14:459-84.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Simoni M, Tüttelmann F, Michel C, Böckenfeld Y, Nieschlag E, Gromoll J. Polymorphisms of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene: Association with maldescended testes and male infertility. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008;18:193-200.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Themmen AP. An update of the pathophysiology of human gonadotrophin subunit and receptor gene mutations and polymorphisms. Reproduction 2005;130:263-74.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Nilsson CH, Kaleva M, Virtanen H, Haavisto AM, Pettersson K, Huhtaniemi IT. Disparate response of wild-type and variant forms of LH to GnRH stimulation in individuals heterozygous for the LHbeta variant allele. Hum Reprod 2001;16:230-5.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Pettersson KS, Söderholm JR. Individual differences in lutropin immunoreactivity revealed by monoclonal antibodies. Clin Chem 1991;37:333-40.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Alviggi C, Clarizia R, Pettersson K, Mollo A, Humaidan P, Strina I, et al. Suboptimal response to GnRHa long protocol is associated with a common LH polymorphism. Reprod Biomed Online 2009;18:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Mafra FA, Bianco B, Christofolini DM, Souza AM, Zulli K, Barbosa CP. Luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene (LHbeta) polymorphism in infertility and endometriosis-associated infertility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;151:66-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Hamilton-Fairley D, Kiddy D, Watson H, Sagle M, Franks S. Low-dose gonadotrophin therapy for induction of ovulation in 100 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod 1991;6:1095-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Shoham Z, Patel A, Jacobs HS. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Safety and effectiveness of stepwise and low-dose administration of purified follicle-stimulating hormone. Fertil Steril 1991;55:1051-6.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Hedon B, Hugues JN, Emperaire JC, Chabaud JJ, Barbereau D, Boujenah A, et al. A comparative prospective study of a chronic low dose versus a conventional ovulation stimulation regimen using recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone in anovulatory infertile women. Hum Reprod 1998;13:2688-92.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Leader A, Monofollicular Ovulation Induction Study Group. Improved monofollicular ovulation in anovulatory or oligo-ovulatory women after a low-dose step-up protocol with weekly increments of 25 international units of follicle-stimulating hormone. Fertil Steril 2006;85:1766-73.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Hugues JN, Cédrin-Durnerin I, Avril C, Bulwa S, Hervé F, Uzan M. Sequential step-up and step-down dose regimen: An alternative method for ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hum Reprod 1996;11:2581-4.  Back to cited text no. 38
39.Hillier SG, Ross GT. Effects of exogenous testosterone on ovarian weight, follicular morphology and intraovarian progesterone concentration in estrogen-primed hypophysectomized immature female rats. Biol Reprod 1979;20:261-8.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.De Placido G, Alviggi C, Perino A, Strina I, Lisi F, Fasolino A, et al. Recombinant human LH supplementation versus recombinant human FSH (rFSH) step-up protocol during controlled ovarian stimulation in normogonadotrophic women with initial inadequate ovarian response to rFSH. A multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2005;20:390-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Ubaldi FM, Rienzi L, Ferrero S, Baroni E, Sapienza F, Cobellis L, et al. Management of poor responders in IVF. Reprod Biomed Online 2005;10:235-46.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Hill MJ, Levens ED, Levy G, Ryan ME, Csokmay JM, DeCherney AH, et al. The use of recombinant luteinizing hormone in patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques with advanced reproductive age: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 2012;97:1108-14.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Musters AM, van Wely M, Mastenbroek S, Kaaijk EM, Repping S, van der Veen F, et al. The effect of recombinant LH on embryo quality: A randomized controlled trial in women with poor ovarian reserve. Hum Reprod 2012;27:244-50.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Barrenetxea G, Agirregoikoa JA, Jiménez MR, de Larruzea AL, Ganzabal T, Carbonero K. Ovarian response and pregnancy outcome in poor-responder women: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of luteinizing hormone supplementation on in vitro fertilization cycles. Fertil Steril 2008;89:546-53.  Back to cited text no. 44
45.Bosdou JK, Venetis CA, Kolibianakis EM, Toulis KA, Goulis DG, Zepiridis L, et al. The use of androgens or androgen-modulating agents in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2012;18:127-45.  Back to cited text no. 45
46.Mochtar MH, Van der Veen, Ziech M, van Wely M. Recombinant Luteinizing Hormone (rLH) for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproductive cycles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;2:CD005070.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.Nakahara K, Saito H, Saito T, Ito M, Ohta N, Sakai N, et al. Incidence of apoptotic bodies in membrana granulosa of the patients participating in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 1997;67:302-8.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.Oosterhuis GJ, Michgelsen HW, Lambalk CB, Schoemaker J, Vermes I. Apoptotic cell death in human granulosa-lutein cells: A possible indicator of in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertil Steril 1998;70:747-9.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.Bencomo E, Pérez R, Arteaga MF, Acosta E, Peña O, Lopez L, et al. Apoptosis of cultured granulosa-lutein cells is reduced by insulin-like growth factor I and may correlate with embryo fragmentation and pregnancy rate. Fertil Steril 2006;85:474-80.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Gatta V, Tatone C, Ciriminna R, Vento M, Franchi S, d'Aurora M, et al. Gene expression profiles of cumulus cells obtained from women treated with recombinant human luteinizing hormone+recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone or highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin versus recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone alone. Fertil Steril 2013;99:2000-81.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Weil S, Vendola K, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgen and follicle-stimulating hormone interactions in primate ovarian follicle development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2951-6.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Thornton K, Alper MM, Ryley D, Ezcurra D. Outcomes of GnRH antagonist IVF cycles using LH supplementation for COH: FSH/rhLH versus FSH/hMG. Fertil Steril 2006;86:S411.  Back to cited text no. 52
53.Rekha P, Jirge S. Is LH necessary in ovulation induction? In: Desai S, Parihar M, Allahabadia G, editors. Infertility: Principles and Practice. India: BI Publications Pvt. Ltd.; 2004. p. 5.  Back to cited text no. 53
54.Recombinant human luteinizing hormone (LH) to support recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced follicular development in LH- and FSH-deficient anovulatory women: A dose-finding study. The European Recombinant Human LH Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1507-14.  Back to cited text no. 54
55.Lisi F, Caserta D, Montanino M, Berlinghieri V, Bielli W, Carfagna P, et al. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization in downregulated patients. Gynecol Endocrinol 2012;28:674-7.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Carone D, Vizziello G, Vitti A, Chiappetta R. Clinical outcomes of ovulation induction in WHO Group I anovulatory women using r-hFSH ? r-hLH in a 2:1 ratio compared to hMG. Hum Reprod 2010;25:285-321.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Ferraretti AP, Gianaroli L, Magli MC, D'angelo A, Farfalli V, Montanaro N. Exogenous luteinizing hormone in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction techniques. Fertil Steril 2004;82:1521-6.  Back to cited text no. 57


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Reproductive effects of Abelmoschus esculentus fruit methanol extract in female Wistar rats
Eunice Ogunwole, Jemimah Adoh Yakubu, Vivian Tally Giwa
Current Research in Physiology. 2022; 5: 208
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A novel role of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in various regeneration-related functions of endometrial stem cells
Se-Ra Park, Soo-Rim Kim, Seong-Kwan Kim, Jeong-Ran Park, In-Sun Hong
Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Novel roles of luteinizing hormone (LH) in tissue regeneration-associated functions in endometrial stem cells
Se-Ra Park, Seong-Kwan Kim, Soo-Rim Kim, Jeong-Ran Park, Soyi Lim, In-Sun Hong
Cell Death & Disease. 2022; 13(7)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Prevention of Premature Ovulation by Administration of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonist the day After Ovulation Triggering in Diminished Ovarian Reserve Patients
Bulat Aytek Sik, Ozan Ozolcay, Yilda Arzu Aba, Alper Sismanoglu, Sifa Savas, Serkan Oral
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Anti-tuberculosis drugs used in a directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) schedule alter endocrine patterns and reduce the ovarian reserve and oocyte quality in the mouse
Arpitha Rao, Guruprasad Nayak, Hanumappa Ananda, Sandhya Kumari, Rahul Dutta, Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur, Srinivas Mutalik, Sneha Ann Thomas, Renu Pasricha, Shamprasad Varija Raghu, Satish Kumar Adiga, Guruprasad Kalthur, Geraldine Hartshorne
Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2022; 34(17): 1059
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels on egg-laying frequency in hens
Ragil Angga Prastiya, Sri Pantja Madyawati, Sera Yunita Sari, Aras Prasetiyo Nugroho
Veterinary World. 2022; : 2890
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Plumeria acuminata: A Systematic In Vivo Evaluation for its Antiovulatory and Anti-implantation Features
Jay P. Rabadia, Tushar R. Desai, Vihang S. Thite
Current Drug Therapy. 2022; 17(3): 186
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
D.V. Turchak , M.V. Khaitovych
Medical Science of Ukraine (MSU). 2022; 18(1): 84
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Herbal Treatment for Infertility in Women: A Systematic Review
Nor Ashikin Mohamed Noor Khan, Mohamad Rodi Isa, Nurrin Nabilla Md Rashidi, Nur Iman Izzati Mohammad Zaip, Nik Nur Syazleen Nik Rohaimi
Journal of Comprehensive Nursing Research and Care. 2022; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Clomiphene citrate mild stimulation improved follicular development outcomes in PCOS women with high luteinizing hormone and poor ovarian response: A case report
Xiaojing Yang, Meiyan Jiang, Miao Deng, Huanhuan Zhang, Zhenyun Lin, Xiaoyang Fei, Hongyan Zhang
Medicine. 2022; 101(42): e31323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Luteinizing hormone-based modified GnRH antagonist protocol in normal responders undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment: A multi-center randomized controlled trial
Shan Liu, Yasu Lv, Minghui Liu, Shuo Han, Xiaoqun Liu, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Cui, Aijun Yang, Yuan Li
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Linking Puberty and the Gut Microbiome to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders
Pasquale Esposito, Nafissa Ismail
Microorganisms. 2022; 10(11): 2163
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Correction of the sexual function in domestic animals by megestrol acetate
A. P. Paliy, K. A. Dotsenko, O. V. Pavlichenko, A. P. Palii, K. O. Rodionova
Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. 2022; 8(1-2): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Successful pregnancy and delivery after a vitrified-warmed embryo transfer in a woman with Kallmann syndrome: A case report and literature review
Aya Shiraiwa, Toshifumi Takahashi, Chihiro Okoshi, Marina Wada, Kuniaki Ota, Ryota Suganuma, Masatoshi Jimbo, Shu Soeda, Takafumi Watanabe, Hiromi Yoshida-Komiya, Keiya Fujimori
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Effectiveness of recombinant luteinizing hormone/human menopausal gonadotropin/letrozole as additives to recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization/intra
Rashmi Agrawal, Abha Majumdar, ShwetaM Gupta, Deepanshu Gupta
Fertility Science and Research. 2021; 8(2): 166
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Is there a relationship between luteinizing hormone levels and ART outcome in GnRH antagonist protocols? A retrospective cross-sectional study
Maryam Eftekhar, Masrooreh Hoseini, Nasim Tabibnejad
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2021; 25(6): 563
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Recombinant luteinizing hormone supplementation in assisted reproductive technology: a review of literature
Maryam Eftekhar, Nasim Tabibnejad
Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2021; 26(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 The Relationship Between Bone and Reproductive Hormones Beyond Estrogens and Androgens
Edouard G Mills, Lisa Yang, Morten F Nielsen, Moustapha Kassem, Waljit S Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos
Endocrine Reviews. 2021; 42(6): 691
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Luteinising hormone-based protocol versus traditional flexible gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in women with normal ovarian response: study protocol for a non-inferiority trial
Ya-su Lv, Yuan Li, Shan Liu
BMJ Open. 2021; 11(8): e047974
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Expression of E-Cadherin in Pig-Tailed Monkey (Macaca nemestrina) Endometrium after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation
Nurhuda Sahar, R. Muharam, Andhea Debby Pradhita, Rosalina Thuffi, Wa Ode Zulhulaifah, Ponco Birowo, A.Seval Ozgu-Erdinc
BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Effect of LHCGR Gene Polymorphism (rs2293275) on LH Supplementation Protocol Outcomes in Second IVF Cycles: A Retrospective Study
Ramaraju GA, Ravikrishna Cheemakurthi, Madan Kalagara, Kavitha Prathigudupu, Kavitha Lakshmi Balabomma, Pranati Mahapatro, Sivanarayana Thota, Aruna Lakshmi Kommaraju, Sanni Prasada Rao Muvvala
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Optimising Follicular Development, Pituitary Suppression, Triggering and Luteal Phase Support During Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Delphi Consensus
Raoul Orvieto, Christos A. Venetis, Human M. Fatemi, Thomas D’Hooghe, Robert Fischer, Yulia Koloda, Marcos Horton, Michael Grynberg, Salvatore Longobardi, Sandro C. Esteves, Sesh K. Sunkara, Yuan Li, Carlo Alviggi
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 A Premature Rise of Luteinizing Hormone Is Associated With a Reduced Cumulative Live Birth Rate in Patients =37 Years Old Undergoing GnRH Antagonist In Vitro Fertilization Cycles
Fumei Gao, Yanbin Wang, Dan Wu, Min Fu, Qiuxiang Zhang, Yumeng Ren, Zexi Yang, Huan Shen, Hongjing Han
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 A Novel Hypothesis: A Role for Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development in Postmenopausal Women
Victoria N. Tedjawirja, Max Nieuwdorp, Kak Khee Yeung, Ron Balm, Vivian de Waard
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Are all antral follicles the same? Size of antral follicles as a key predictor for response to controlled ovarian stimulation
Isil Kasapoglu, Adnan Orhan, Kiper Aslan, Esra Sen, Aysenur Kaya, Berrin Avci, Gurkan Uncu
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Improving Implantation Rate in 2nd ICSI Cycle through Ovarian Stimulation with FSH and LH in GNRH Antagonist Regimen
Amanda Souza Setti, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Assumpto Iaconelli, Edson Borges
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia / RBGO Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2021; 43(10): 749
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Supplementation with human menopausal gonadotropin in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles of women with high AMH: Pregnancy outcomes and serial hormone levels
Liang-Hsuan Chen, Tzu-Hsuan Chin, Shang-Yu Huang, Hsing-Tse Yu, Chia-Lin Chang, Hong-Yuan Huang, Hsin-Shih Wang, Yung-Kuei Soong, Hsien-Ming Wu
Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2021; 60(4): 739
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Mitigation of organophosphorus insecticides from environment: Residual detoxification by bioweapon catalytic scavengers
Murali Krishna Paidi, Praveen Satapute, Muhammad Salman Haider, Shashikant Shiddappa Udikeri, Yarappa Lakshmikantha Ramachandra, Dai-Viet N. Vo, Muthusamy Govarthanan, Sudisha Jogaiah
Environmental Research. 2021; 200: 111368
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Expression of genes that regulate follicle development and maturation during ovarian stimulation in poor responders
Christine I. Vaitsopoulou, Efstratios M. Kolibianakis, Julia K. Bosdou, Eirini Neofytou, Stefania Lymperi, Anastasios Makedos, Despina Savvaidou, Katerina Chatzimeletiou, Grigoris F. Grimbizis, Alexandros Lambropoulos, Basil C. Tarlatzis
Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 2021; 42(1): 248
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Endometrial preparation for vitrified–warmed embryo transfer with or without GnRH-agonist pre-treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial
Shabnam Salemi, Azar Yahyaei, Samira Vesali, Firouzeh Ghaffari
Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 2021; 43(3): 446
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 A Comprehensive Overview of Common Polymorphic Variants in Genes Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Tatiana Castillo-Higuera, María Camila Alarcón-Granados, Johana Marin-Suarez, Harold Moreno-Ortiz, Clara Inés Esteban-Pérez, Atilio Junior Ferrebuz-Cardozo, Maribel Forero-Castro, Gloria Camargo-Vill alba
Reproductive Sciences. 2021; 28(9): 2399
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 The Effect of Luteinising Hormone Suppression in In Vitro Fertilisation Antagonist Cycles
Jody Paige Goh, Jill Cheng Sim Lee, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, John Carson Allen, Xiang Wen Ng, Sadhana Nadarajah, Jessie Wai Leng Phoon, Shuling Liu
Reproductive Sciences. 2021; 28(11): 3164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 The role of inactivated NF-?B in the occurrence of premature ovarian failure
Xin Luo, Junjie Xu, Ran Zhao, Jiajia Qin, Xiaoyu Wang, Yu Yan, Li-jing Wang, Guang Wang, Xuesong Yang
The American Journal of Pathology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Global analysis of FSH-regulated gene expression and histone modification in mouse granulosa cells
Ejimedo Madogwe, Deepak K. Tanwar, Milena Taibi, Yasmin Schuermann, Audrey St-Yves, Raj Duggavathi
Molecular Reproduction and Development. 2020; 87(10): 1082
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 The association between treatment parameters on the day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist initiation during a flexible protocol and oocyte maturation rate
Avital Wertheimer, Shir Danieli-Gruber, Alyssa Hochberg, Galia Oron, Onit Sapir, Yoel Shufaro, Avi Ben-Haroush
Reproductive Biology. 2020; 20(2): 127
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Ovarian follicular waves during the menstrual cycle: physiologic insights into novel approaches for ovarian stimulation
Angela Baerwald, Roger Pierson
Fertility and Sterility. 2020; 114(3): 443
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Influence of human chorionic gonadotrophin during ovarian stimulation: an overview
Johan Smitz, Peter Platteau
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2020; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Comparison of Highly Purified HMG versus Recombinant FSH with Antagonist Protocol in Poor Responder Patients
Arie A. Polim, Nining Handayani, Adinda Pratiwi, Caroline Hutomo, Arief Boediono, Ivan Sini
Fertility & Reproduction. 2020; 02(01): 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Hormonal Changes in High-Level Aerobic Male Athletes during a Sports Season
Javier Alves, Víctor Toro, Gema Barrientos, Ignacio Bartolomé, Diego Muñoz, Marcos Maynar
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16): 5833
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Role of nuclear factor-?B pathway in the transition of mouse secondary follicles to antral follicles
Jun-Jie Xu, Guang Wang, Xin Luo, Li-Jing Wang, Yongping Bao, Xuesong Yang
Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2019; 234(12): 22565
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Controlled ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization
Ruth Howie, Vanessa Kay
British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2018; 79(4): 194
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Influence of GnRH antagonist in reproductive women on in?vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in fresh cycles
Yang Xu, Yu-Song Zhang, Dong-Yi Zhu, Xiang-Hong Zhai, Feng-Xia Wu, An-Cong Wang
Biomedical Reports. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 BRE modulates granulosa cell death to affect ovarian follicle development and atresia in the mouse
Cheung Kwan Yeung, Guang Wang, Yao Yao, Jianxin Liang, Cheuk Yiu Tenny Chung, Manli Chuai, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Xuesong Yang
Cell Death & Disease. 2017; 8(3): e2697
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Robo1/2 regulate follicle atresia through manipulating granulosa cell apoptosis in mice
Jiangchao Li, Yuxiang Ye, Renli Zhang, Lili Zhang, Xiwen Hu, Dong Han, Jiayuan Chen, Xiaodong He, Guang Wang, Xuesong Yang, Lijing Wang
Scientific Reports. 2015; 5(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (1,288 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Role of LH In Ph...
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1436    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 44    

Recommend this journal