Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 5556


 
   Table of Contents     
REVIEW ARTICLE  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-74
 

Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride


1 Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission18-Apr-2015
Date of Decision01-May-2015
Date of Acceptance04-May-2015
Date of Web Publication12-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Sujita Kumar Kar
Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-1208.158594

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Adolescence, derived from the Latin word "adolescere" meaning "to grow up" is a critical developmental period. During adolescence, major biological as well as psychological developments take place. Development of sexuality is an important bio-psycho-social development, which takes an adult shape during this period. During adolescence, an individual's thought, perception as well as response gets colored sexually. Puberty is an important landmark of sexuality development that occurs in the adolescence. The myriad of changes that occurs in adolescents puts them under enormous stress, which may have adverse physical, as well as psychological consequences. Understanding adolescent sexuality has important clinical, legal, social, cultural, as well as educational implications.


Keywords: Adolescence, development, puberty, sexuality


How to cite this article:
Kar SK, Choudhury A, Singh AP. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride. J Hum Reprod Sci 2015;8:70-4

How to cite this URL:
Kar SK, Choudhury A, Singh AP. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 May 17];8:70-4. Available from: https://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2015/8/2/70/158594



   Introduction Top


Growth and development are continuous processes, which bring a change in an individual, every moment. Development of sexuality starts as early as in intrauterine life following conception and continues through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood till death. [1] During infancy, there is no awareness of gender. The child acknowledges its gender in early childhood as early as by 3 years. Self-awareness about sexuality (gender role, gender identity) evolves during the childhood. [2] Biological research evidences are suggestive of the definite role of androgens in deciding the gender sensitive roles and gender-specific behaviors. [2] Adolescence is a phase of transition during which major developments of sexuality takes place. Puberty is reached during adolescence, which is a major landmark in the development of sexuality. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis function is highly essential for the sexual development during puberty.

Adolescence can be broadly divided into three stages: Early (10-13 years), middle (14-16 years), and late (17-19 years). Physical changes start in early adolescence, where they are very concerned about their body image. During adolescence cognitive development takes place; adolescents develop abstract thinking and reasoning. Emotionally, they develop a sense of identity during late adolescence; social involvement, peer interaction, as well as sexual interest, develop in this phase. Different behavioral experimentation is seen in early adolescence, risk taking in middle adolescence, and later adolescents learns to assess their own risk taking. [3]

As per the 2014 data, published by U.S Census Bureau, adolescents (10-19 years of age) count approximately 1.2 billion across the globe. [4] Nearly, 70% of total adolescent (10-19 years of age) population of the world resides in developing countries. [5],[6] Developing countries in recent decades are going through a rapid change due to - urbanization, migration, education, and mixing of cultures, which are having a definite impact on the attitude toward sexuality in adolescents.

In developing countries like India, the adolescents are also subjected to early marriage, which results in teenage pregnancy and adolescent fatherhood. In most cases, females in comparison to males are subjected to early marriage. Early exposure to sexual relationship also increases the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. As the culture of the developing country facilitates early marriage, as well as early pregnancy and adolescent fatherhood, the family and the society usually prepare the adolescents for the same which colors the adolescents attitude toward sexuality. In some reserved cultures, sexuality is discussed little so there is little scope to explore sexuality, and it still remains as a myth or enigma for the adolescent, which affects their perception of sexuality.


   Development of sexuality in an adolescent Top


During adolescence, the physical growth, psychological as well as cognitive development reaches its peak. Adolescent sexuality development can be better explained with the bio-psycho-social model. [7] Biological factors, psychological factors, as well as social factors have equal importance in determining, the development of sexuality in adolescents.

Biological factors are the genetic factors and neuro-endocrinal factors, which determine the biological sex and also having an influence on the psychological sex. During adolescence the gonadal hormones, cortisol, and many other hormones play a role in causing the onset of puberty. [8] The secondary sexual characters are expressed due to this neuro-endocrinal influence.

In both males and females-pubic hairs, axillary hairs develop which take a gender specific growth pattern. In males, there occurs enlargement of genitals, appearance of beard and mustache, and the physique takes a typical masculine shape. In females, there occurs development of breast; menstruation starts, genitalia takes an adult shape, and the physique changes to a feminine type. An adolescent's interest in a sexual relationship is also influenced by the hormones.

Individual's personality or temperament is an important psychological factor that also decides the attitude toward sexuality. Introvert adolescents face difficulty in approaching and responding sexually.

Social factors or environmental factors also play a significant role in the development of adolescent sexuality. The attitude of the parents toward sexuality, parenting style, peer relationship, cultural influences are the important social factors which facilitates the sexual learning and decides the sexual attitude of the adolescent.

Other than the biological, psychological, and social factors, many more factors such as political, legal, philosophical, spiritual, ethical, and moral values significantly influence the sexuality development. [9] Media also influences the sexuality in adolescents. [10] In the recent decades, there is an exponential growth in the media coverage worldwide. Adolescents' access literature related to sexuality, sexual crimes, and violence through media which affects the adolescent's perception and attitude toward sexuality. [10] Similarly television, internet also exposes the adolescents to literature and movies with sexuality content, influencing their perception about sexuality. [11]

Sigmund Freud had proposed his theory of psychosexual development, where he described about - oral phase, anal phase, phallic phase, latency phase, and genital phase as the landmark steps of psycho-sexual development. [12] During these phases, different body parts behave as most erotogenic and the individual attempts to explore or stimulate these erotogenic zones in order to get gratification. [12] The table below mentions about the onset of the phases of psychosexual development across life time[Table 1]. [12]
Table 1: Phases of psycho-sexual development

Click here to view


During early adolescence, an individual enters the genital phase from latency phase and throughout the adolescence the genital phase is maintained. The sexuality, which remains quiescent during the latency phase, becomes active during the genital phase.

During adolescence, an individual's need for intimacy and love making with opposite gender increases. Adolescents explore about different appropriate ways to express the love and intimacy. [13]

The development of an adolescent occurs not in isolation, rather in the background of the family, society in a defined culture, which significantly influences the adolescent sexuality. [13] Society's attitude and cultural perception of sexuality largely have an influence on the families in which an adolescent nurtures and his or her sexuality cherishes.


   Gender and adolescence Top


Puberty changes differ in both the sexes. On an average females experience these changes 12-18 months earlier than males. Furthermore, the time of attaining maturity can impact the adolescent development differently. [14]

Early maturing boys having good body image are more confident, secure, and independent as compared to late maturing boys. However, they may have increased aggressiveness due to a surge of hormones. [15],[16] They are more likely to be sexually active and participate in risky behavior. [15],[16]

Early maturing girls on the other hand, are very self-conscious, insecure, and more likely to develop eating disorders. [17] They are more likely to face sexual advances from older boys, more chances of unwanted pregnancies and more likely to be exposed to alcohol and drug abuse.

As per a research in the United States, during childhood-boys as compared to girls are more likely to face negative health outcomes like aggressive behavior and depression. [18] On the other hand, during adolescence, the girls are more likely to face the higher risk of negative health outcomes. [18] The effect of discrimination, gender, poverty, and abuse make the adolescent girls more vulnerable to the adverse outcomes. [19]

In areas of conflict (war prone zones, countries with political instability, and religious conflicts), young girls are at higher risk of sexual abuse and trafficking and young boys are more likely to be recruited as child soldiers. [20] The culture influences the roles and expectations from girls and thus has an impact on their access of information, education, and opportunity.


   Adolescent sexual behavior Top


Adolescence is the period during which an individual's thought perception, as well as response gets colored sexually. Adolescence is the age to explore and understand sexuality. Sexual curiosity in the adolescence led to exposure to pornography, indulgence in sexual activities, and also increases the vulnerability for sexual abuse.

Halpern et al., studied on western population regarding sexual behavior patterns of adolescents and explored the possible factors attributing to the sexual behaviors. [21] In this study, they studied over 11,000 adolescents between 18 and 27 years of age and found that more than 90% lose their virginity before marriage. [21] The virgin population is found to be younger in age, have the poor physical maturity, higher body mass index, more religious inclination, and often had perceived disapproval for sex during adolescence by parents. [21] By the late teenage and early 20's, most individuals experience oral or vaginal sex irrespective of marital status as found in different studies from US. [22],[23] It was seen that early exposure to vaginal sex during adolescence increased the risk of sexual transmitted disease, however, the risk gradually declines with age. [24],[25],[26] It was also reported that, those who were exposed early to vaginal sex found to have more number of sexual partners which might have a link with the increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases. [26],[27]

In recent years, internet has brought a revolution in adolescent's attitude and perception toward sexuality. [11] Adolescents acquire extensive information related to sexuality, which may be misguiding and can have a significant negative impact on the sexual behaviors. [11] Sexuality is a complex human behavior, which is largely influenced by factors such as physical appearance, psychological factors, social factors, cultural norms, and past experiences. [2]

Most of the studies focus on vaginal sex on the sexual behavior in adolescence and hardly few studies discuss the non-vaginal sexual behavior. [26] There is a need to explore the non-vaginal sexual behaviors (oral sex, anal sex) which may be potential routes of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection/AIDS as adequate protections like use of condom is taken in these methods like vaginal sex. [26],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32]


   Challenges faced Top


Adolescents face a great challenge in their early adolescence. Many critical biological, as well as psychological changes, occur during this phase for which many adolescents are not prepared enough to cope with, which often puts them under stress. Onset of menstruation, change in voice (puberphonia) in boys, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and psychological changes often perceived as challenges. Family and society's attitude, as well as a cultural influence on these changes, during puberty, plays a major role in deciding the adolescent's sexual behavior after puberty.

Sexual exposure during adolescence is a matter of serious concern due to the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections including HIV infection/AIDS, teenage pregnancy, and adolescent fatherhood. [13],[33] In many developing countries, as well as underdeveloped countries, early sexual exposure leading to HIV infection is a matter of great concern. [34],[35] Early marriage leading to early sexual exposure, and pregnancy also has adverse consequences on the reproductive health. [5],[36]

In many developing countries and most of the underdeveloped countries, formal sex education in school mostly does not exist; if it exists, then mostly found to be inadequate. Lack of proper sex education often leads to unprotected sex, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Due to multiple reasons adolescents are exposed to unprotected sex. Lack of awareness and improper sex education is an important reason of unprotected sex in adolescents. [5] In developing and underdeveloped countries, the parent - child communication related to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases is poor. [5] Adolescents get little opportunity to discuss about their sexuality related issues, which likely to hamper the healthy sexual development. [7]

Difficulties associated with the sexual approaches and encounters are not the only challenge in adolescence. Interpersonal violence is one of the notable concerns in adolescents. [13] It may result in physical, as well as sexual abuse. Most of the interpersonal violence is related to sexuality. Usually, the adolescents are not trained enough in the parenting skills due to, which teenage pregnancy and adolescent fatherhood becomes a challenge. [13] Clinical and educational interventions on adolescent sexuality focus mostly on coital sexual activities of adolescents. However, there are plenty of evidence regarding adolescent's involvement in non-coital activities, which are potential routes of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. [5],[26],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[37] There is a need to focus on non-coital sexual activities during clinical assessment and health education.


   Conclusion Top


Understanding the sexuality development of adolescent is of utmost importance. Without this understanding, one cannot move forward for clinical or educational intervention. Understanding the factors influencing sexuality is also useful for intervention. At the same time, understanding adolescent sexuality, will also help parents to understand the difficulties of their children better and will help them to guide their children in the crossroads of adolescence.

 
   References Top

1.
DeLamater J, Friedrich WN. Human sexual development. J Sex Res 2002;39:10-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Brown RT. Adolescent sexuality at the dawn of the 21 st century. Adolesc Med 2000;11:19-34.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Resource Centre for Adolesent Pregnancy Prevention. An Overview of Adolescent Development. Education, Training and Research Associates; 2003. Available from: http://www.etr.org/recapp/theories/adolescent development/overview.htm. [Last accessed on 2015 Jan 06].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
U.S Census Bureau. International Data Base (IDB). World Population by Age and Sex; 2014. Available from: http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/broker. [Last accessed on 2014 Jul 27].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hindin MJ, Fatusi AO. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: An overview of trends and interventions. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2009;35:58-62.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
UNFPA. Generation of Change: Young People and Culture, 2008, Youth Supplement to UNFPA′s State of the World Population Report. New York: UNFPA; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sales JM, Smearman EL, Brody GH, Milhausen R, Philibert RA, Diclemente RJ. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking and sexual satisfaction among female African American adolescents. Sex Health 2013;10:512-21.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Sandberg DE, Gardner M, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Psychological aspects of the treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Semin Reprod Med 2012;30:443-52.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Merrick J, Tenenbaum A, Omar HA. Human sexuality and adolescence. Front Public Health 2013;1:41.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Harris AL. Media and technology in adolescent sexual education and safety. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2011;40:235-42.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Kanuga M, Rosenfeld WD. Adolescent sexuality and the internet: The good, the bad, and the URL. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2004;17:117-24.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Dave S, Dave A. Psychosexual development and human sexuality. In: Kar N, Kar GC, editors. Comprehensive Textbook of Sexual Medicine. 2 nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Publishers; 2014. p. 42-53.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ott MA. Examining the development and sexual behavior of adolescent males. J Adolesc Health 2010;46 4 Suppl: S3-11.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
National Research Council. Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. Washington, DC: National Academics Press; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Garn SM. Physical growth and development. In: Friedman SB, Fischer M, Schonberg SK, editors. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Care. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Susman EJ, Dorn LD, Schiefelbein VL. Puberty, sexuality and health. In: Learner MA, Easterbrooks MA, Mistry J, editors. Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology. New York: Wiley; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
"Parents & teachers:Teenage Growth and Development, years 15-17" Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Archived from the Original on 26 February, 2009. Availabel from: http://www.pamf.org/parenting-teens/health/growth-development/growth.html. [Last retrieved on 2015 Apr 8].  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mangrulkar L, Whitman CV, Posner M. Life skills approach to child and adolescent healthy human development. Washington, DC: PAHO; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World Youth Report 2003: The Global Situation of Young People. New York, NY: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
McIntyre P. Seen but not heard: Very young adolescents 10-14 years. Oxford, England: WHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Halpern CT, Waller MW, Spriggs A, Hallfors DD. Adolescent predictors of emerging adult sexual patterns. J Adolesc Health 2006;39:926.e1-10.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Fortenberry JD, Schick V, Herbenick D, Sanders SA, Dodge B, Reece M. Sexual behaviors and condom use at last vaginal intercourse: A national sample of adolescents ages 14 to 17 years. J Sex Med 2010;7 Suppl 5:305-14.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Herbenick D, Reece M, Schick V, Sanders SA, Dodge B, Fortenberry JD. Sexual behavior in the United States: Results from a national probability sample of men and women ages 14-94. J Sex Med 2010;7 Suppl 5:255-65.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Upchurch DM, Mason WM, Kusunoki Y, Kriechbaum MJ. Social and behavioral determinants of self-reported STD among adolescents. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2004;36:276-87.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Kaestle CE, Halpern CT, Miller WC, Ford CA. Young age at first sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults. Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:774-80.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Haydon AA, Herring AH, Halpern CT. Associations between patterns of emerging sexual behavior and young adult reproductive health. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2012;44:218-27.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
O′Donnell L, O′Donnell CR, Stueve A. Early sexual initiation and subsequent sex-related risks among urban minority youth: The reach for health study. Fam Plann Perspect 2001;33:268-75.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Edwards S, Carne C. Oral sex and the transmission of viral STIs. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:6-10.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Edwards S, Carne C. Oral sex and transmission of non-viral STIs. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Stone N, Hatherall B, Ingham R, McEachran J. Oral sex and condom use among young people in the United Kingdom. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2006;38:6-12.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Leichliter JS, Chandra A, Liddon N, Fenton KA, Aral SO. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States. J Infect Dis 2007;196:1852-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Halperin DT. Heterosexual anal intercourse: Prevalence, cultural factors, and HIV infection and other health risks, Part I. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1999;13:717-30.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Auslander BA, Rosenthal SL, Blythe MJ. Understanding sexual behaviors of adolescents within a biopsychosocial framework. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2007;18:434-48, v.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Pettifor AE, van der Straten A, Dunbar MS, Shiboski SC, Padian NS. Early age of first sex: A risk factor for HIV infection among women in Zimbabwe. AIDS 2004;18:1435-42.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Dixon-Mueller R. Starting young: Sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence. AIDS Behav 2009;13:100-9.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Dixon-Mueller R. How young is "too young"? Comparative perspectives on adolescent sexual, marital, and reproductive transitions. Stud Fam Plann 2008;39:247-62.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Lindberg LD, Jones R, Santelli JS. Noncoital sexual activities among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2008;43:231-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 “ We just do it … we are dead already ” : Exploring the sexual behaviors of youth living with HIV
Maggie Zgambo, Diana Arabiat, Deborah Ireson
Journal of Adolescence. 2022; 94(1): 34
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Adolescents’ Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Over the Course of 2019–2020 in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-wave Panel Study
Chelly Maes, Laura Vandenbosch
Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Exploring sexual awareness and Decision-making among adolescent girls and boys in rural Nicaragua: A socio-ecological approach
Frida M. Larsson, Rachel Bowers-Sword, Gabriela Narvaez, William J. Ugarte
Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. 2022; 31: 100676
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 The Development of the Positive Sexuality in Adolescence Scale (PSAS)
Chelly Maes, Jolien Trekels, Emily Impett, Laura Vandenbosch
The Journal of Sex Research. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Associations between Conflict Negotiation Strategies, Sexual Comfort, and Sexual Satisfaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships
Stéphanie Couture, Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel, Martine Hébert, Mylčne Fernet
The Journal of Sex Research. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Nutritional status and its associated factors among HIV adolescents on second line regimen at Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic in Uganda
Darshit Ashok Dave, Ainembabazi Provia, Nana Nakiddu, Erin Sodawasser, Katrina Harper, John Ssenkusu, Sabrina Kitaka, Melanie Nicol, Joseph Musaazi, Christine Sekaggya
Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Prospective Associations Between Pornography Viewing and Sexual Aggression Among Adolescents
Emily A. Waterman, Rose Wesche, Grace Morris, Katie M. Edwards, Victoria L. Banyard
Journal of Research on Adolescence. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Transitioning from paediatric to HIV adult care services for adolescents and young people living with HIV in the African region: a scoping review protocol
Andrew Sentoogo Ssemata, Noeline Nakasujja, Eugene Kinyanda
BMJ Open. 2022; 12(3): e059241
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Queer at Camp: The Impact of Summer Camps on LGBTQ Campers in the United States
Penny Harvey, Juhwan Seo, Emily Logan
Gender a výzkum / Gender and Research. 2022; 22(2): 45
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 A scoping review of suggested practices for healthcare providers when discussing sexuality with youth
Stephanie LM Lung, Joanne Wincentak, Caron Gan, Shauna Kingsnorth, Christine Provvidenza, Amy C McPherson
The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Associations between Developing Sexuality and Mental Health in Heterosexual Adolescents: Evidence from Lower- and Middle-Income Countries—A Scoping Review
Neelam Saleem Punjani, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou, Kathleen Hegadoren, Saima Hirani, Zubia Mumtaz, Margot Jackson
Adolescents. 2022; 2(2): 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Adolescents’ Online Pornography Exposure and Its Relationship to Sociodemographic and Psychopathological Correlates: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries
Elisabeth K. Andrie, Irene Ikbale Sakou, Eleni C. Tzavela, Clive Richardson, Artemis K. Tsitsika
Children. 2021; 8(10): 925
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Experiences of intimate relationships, stigma, social support and treatment adherence among HIV-positive adolescents in Chiredzi district, Zimbabwe
Christopher Jimu, Kaymarlin Govender, Roselyn Kanyemba, Marie-Jeanne Offosse Ngbesso
African Journal of AIDS Research. 2021; 20(3): 214
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 The Need for Nurse Interventions in Sex Education in Adolescents
Luboslava Pavelová, Alexandra Archalousová, Zuzana Slezáková, Dana Zrubcová, Andrea Solgajová, Zuzana Spácilová, Erika Krištofová, Alica Slamková
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2): 492
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Gender Differences in Sexual Behaviors and Their Relevance to Mental Health among High School Students with Sexual Experience in South Korea
Hyunlye Kim, Kwang-Hi Park, Suin Park
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21): 11295
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Health and Lifestyle, Safety, Relationship and Personality Factors Influence Gender, Sex and Sexuality Issues among Youth—A Case Record Analysis from Youth Mental Health Promotion Clinics in Karnataka, India
Pradeep Banandur, Swati Shahane, Sathya Velu, Sathrajith Bhargav, Aditi Thakkar, Virupaksha Hasiruvalli Gangappa, Vani Naik, Mutharaju Arelingaiah, Lavanya Garady, Jyoti Koujageri, Sateesh L. Sajjanar, Subhash Chandra Kashipalli Lakshminarayan, Shalini Rajneesh, Gururaj Gopalkrishna
Sexes. 2021; 2(4): 483
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 The Correlation Between Adolescent Experiences of Violence and Parental Attachment With Adolescent Desire to Use Online Pornography
Nancy Rosita Timisela, Heman Elia, Ferry Yefta Mamahit
Veritas: Jurnal Teologi dan Pelayanan. 2021; 20(2): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Internet Usage and Risky Sexual Behavior among High School Students in a Suburban Area of Indonesia
Kusman Ibrahim, Adriati Ajeng Juliana, Dyah Setyorini, Iqbal Pramukti
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021; 9(E): 653
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Determinants of risky sexual behavior among secondary school adolescents in cross River State, Nigeria
LilianEberechukwu Eyam, SundayEyam Eyam, BernadineNsa Ekpeyong, AntorOdu Ndep, MargaretInemesit Akpan, EmanuelEkanem Ekanem
Nigerian Journal of Medicine. 2021; 30(6): 658
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 The significance of understanding psychosexual development and sexuality education for Vietnamese adolescents
Nguyen Thi Lan, Nguyen Huy Huong
International Journal of Research Studies in Education. 2021; 10(16)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Evaluation of Turkish Women’s Thoughts on Their First Sexual Experience
Gokcen Erdogan
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Adolescent girls’ perceived readiness for sex in Central Uganda - liminal transitions and implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions
Nambusi Kyegombe, Ana Maria Buller, Rebecca Meiksin, Joyce Wamoyi, Richard Muhumuza, Lori Heise
Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Effects of mobile health education on sexual and reproductive health information among female school-going adolescents of rural Thailand
Premyuda Narkarat, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Ramesh Kumar, Ratana Somrongthong
F1000Research. 2021; 10: 452
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Compulsive Internet Pornography Use and Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Sample of University Students in the United States
Christina Camilleri, Justin T. Perry, Stephen Sammut
Frontiers in Psychology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Sexual Knowledge, Desires, and Experience of Adolescents and Young Adults With an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Study
Christian C. Joyal, Julie Carpentier, Suzie McKinnon, Claude L. Normand, Marie-Hélčne Poulin
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 An Effective Life–Sex–Emotions Course for Taiwanese Adolescents on Health Perceptions: A Cohort Study
Kuo-Yu Chao, Wei Cheng
Frontiers in Public Health. 2021; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 “It Was a Mistake, but We Knew That Something Might Happen”: Narratives of Teenage Girls' Experiences With Unintended Teenage Pregnancy
Busisiwe Nkala-Dlamini
Frontiers in Reproductive Health. 2021; 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 PEER COUNSELING TRAINING AS A METHOD OF SEXUAL HEALTH PROMOTION IN ADOLESCENTS
Khoiriyah Isni
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health. 2021; 16(2): 242
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Adolescents’ Communication on Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters with Their Parents and Associated Factors among Secondary and Preparatory School Students in Ambo Town, Oromia, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Shibiru Bikila, Nagasa Dida, Gizachew Abdissa Bulto, Bikila Tefera Debelo, Kababa Temesgen, Vikas Roy
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Considering Social Media Use and Its Impact on Wellness among Adolescents
Wesley P. Patterson, Katherine A. Feather
Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Effectiveness of Sex Education Interventions in Adolescents: An Overview
Nathaly Garzón-Orjuela, Daniel Samacá-Samacá, Jaime Moreno-Chaparro, Magnolia Del Pilar Ballesteros-Cabrera, Javier Eslava-Schmalbach
Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing. 2021; 44(1): 15
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Beliefs and misconceptions about contraception and condom use among adolescents in south-east Nigeria
Chinyere Ojiugo Mbachu, Ifunanya Clara Agu, Chinonso Obayi, Irene Eze, Nkoli Ezumah, Obinna Onwujekwe
Reproductive Health. 2021; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Social support and adolescent mental health and well-being among Jordanian students
Abdullah S. Alshammari, Bettina F. Piko, Kevin M. Fitzpatrick
International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 2021; 26(1): 211
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 The impact of genital warts on sexual function and sexuality-related distress in late adolescence
E. M. Erol Koc, H. Akkaya, M. G. Ozaksit, O. Moraloglu Tekin
International Journal of Impotence Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Les soins de support pour améliorer l’accompagnement personnalisé des patients
Cyril Lervat, Laurence Vanlemmens, Pierre Bondil, Julie Jacquot, Florian Scotté, Leila Gofti-Laroche
Bulletin du Cancer. 2021; 108(2): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Transgender Youths’ Sexual Health and Education: A Qualitative Analysis
Rebecca M. Warwick, Adrian C. Araya, Daniel E. Shumer, Ellen M. Selkie
Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Mindfulness training on the resilience of adolescents under the COVID-19 epidemic: A latent growth curve analysis
Yue Yuan
Personality and Individual Differences. 2021; 172: 110560
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Characteristics of Online Pornography and Interventions Against its Negative Effects in Young People: Results from an International Delphi Panel
Lluis Ballester, Carlos Rosón, Manuel Noya, Beatriz Calderón-Cruz
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Gender Differences in Sex Secret Disclosure to a Romantic Partner
Keely Fox, Alexandria M. Ashley, Lacey J. Ritter, Tara Martin, David Knox
Sexuality & Culture. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Social isolation at adolescence: a systematic review on behaviour related to cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine use in rats and mice
C. Noschang, C. Lampert, R. Krolow, R. M. M. de Almeida
Psychopharmacology. 2021; 238(4): 927
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Factors Associated with HIV and Vulnerability Contexts for Women in Brazil
Emerson Silveira de Brito, Daniela Riva Knauth, Évelin Maria Brand, Karen da Silva Calvo, Álvaro Vigo, Flávia Bulegon Pilecco, Frederico Viana Machado, Marsam Alves de Teixeira, Franciele Moletta de Almeida, Bruna Hentges, Danielle Lodi Silva, Luciana Barcellos Teixeira
Archives of Sexual Behavior. 2021; 50(7): 3247
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Correction to: Gender norms about romantic relationships and sexual experiences among very young male adolescents in Korogocho slum in Kenya
Beatrice W. Maina, Benedict O. Orindi, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Caroline W. Kabiru
International Journal of Public Health. 2020; 65(9): 1805
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Associations of mindfulness with adolescent outcomes and sexuality
Chelom E. Leavitt, David B. Allsop, Dean M. Busby, Shayla M. Driggs, Heather M. Johnson, Matthew T. Saxey
Journal of Adolescence. 2020; 81: 73
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Hidradenitis suppurativa in pediatric patients
Ellie Choi, Xue Ting Ooi, Nisha Suyien Chandran
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Exploring Adolescent Characteristics, Experiences and Socio-environmental Responses on Premarital Pregnancy in Central Java Indonesia
Zahroh Shaluhiyah, Antono Suryoputro, Aulia Novelira, Ratih Indraswari, B. Warsito, Sudarno, T. Triadi Putranto
E3S Web of Conferences. 2020; 202: 12029
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Exploring Adolescent Characteristics, Experiences and Socio-environmental Responses on Premarital Pregnancy in Central Java Indonesia
Zahroh Shaluhiyah, Antono Suryoputro, Aulia Novelira, Ratih Indraswari, B. Warsito, Sudarno, T. Triadi Putranto
E3S Web of Conferences. 2020; 202: 12030
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Impact of school-based educational interventions in middle adolescent populations (15-17yrs) on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and perceptions/knowledge of HPV and its associated cancers: A systematic review
Terri Flood, Iseult M. Wilson, Gillian Prue, Marian McLaughlin, Ciara M. Hughes
Preventive Medicine. 2020; 139: 106168
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Conceptualisations of masculinity and sexual development among boys and young men in Korogocho slum in Kenya
Beatrice W. Maina, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Laura Ferguson, Caroline W. Kabiru
Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 The Role of Adolescent Sex Education in Sexual Satisfaction among LGB+ and Heterosexual Young Adults
Reina Evans, Laura Widman, Katherine Goldey
American Journal of Sexuality Education. 2020; 15(3): 310
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Early motherhood: voices from female adolescents in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana—a qualitative study utilizing Schlossberg’s Transition Theory
Sitsofe Gbogbo
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. 2020; 15(1): 1716620
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Critically Understanding South Asian Sexual Health: A Call for a Holistic and Sex Positive Approach
Samira Ali, Bec Sokha Keo, Sambuddha Chaudhuri
International Journal of Sexual Health. 2020; 32(3): 177
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Changes in the sexual behaviour of young people: introduction
Marcantonio Caltabiano, Maria Castiglioni, Alessandra De-Rose
Genus. 2020; 76(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Our dreams, our selves: automatic analysis of dream reports
Alessandro Fogli, Luca Maria Aiello, Daniele Quercia
Royal Society Open Science. 2020; 7(8): 192080
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 “My partner was not fond of using condoms and I was not on contraception”: understanding adolescent mothers’ perspectives of sexual risk behaviour in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Desiree Govender, Saloshni Naidoo, Myra Taylor
BMC Public Health. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Transitions in adolescent boys and young Men’s high-risk sexual behaviour in India
Santosh Kumar Sharma, Deepanjali Vishwakarma
BMC Public Health. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Participatory Interventions for Sexual Health Promotion for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Internet: Systematic Review
Philippe Martin, Lorraine Cousin, Serge Gottot, Aurelie Bourmaud, Elise de La Rochebrochard, Corinne Alberti
Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22(7): e15378
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Expert Opinions on Web-Based Peer Education Interventions for Youth Sexual Health Promotion: Qualitative Study
Philippe Martin, Corinne Alberti, Serge Gottot, Aurelie Bourmaud, Elise de La Rochebrochard
Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22(11): e18650
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Sexual and reproductive health in HIV-positive adolescents
Esther Simon Yiltok, Augustine Odo Ebonyi, Emeka Uba Ejeliogu
Annals of Medical Research and Practice. 2020; 1: 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Multiple sexual partnerships and associated factors among young psychoactive-substance-users in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda
Tonny Ssekamatte, Moses Tetui, Simon P. S. Kibira, John Bosco Isunju, Richard K. Mugambe, Elizabeth Nabiwemba, Solomon Tsebeni Wafula, Esther Buregyeya, Justine Nnakate Bukenya, Amir H. Pakpour
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(10): e0239323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Factors associated with premarital sexual behaviour of adolescents who lived in a former prostitution area
Retnayu Pradanie, Ni Ketut Alit Armini, Anggar Dwi Untari
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2020; 0(0)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Body dissatisfaction and its association with domains of physical activity and of sedentary behavior in a sample of 15,632 adolescents
William R. Tebar, Daniel S. Canhin, Lucas Antônio Colognesi, Ana Elisa von Ah Morano, Daniela T.C. Silva, Diego G.D. Christofaro
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. 2020; 0(0)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Sex Ed Experiences of Pupils. Toward Literacy in Sex Education
Akvile Giniotaite
Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia. 2020; 45: 77
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 A Qualitative Analysis of Adolescent Responses to YouTube Videos Portraying Sexual and Gender Minority Experiences: Belonging, Community, and Information Seeking
Jordan A. Levinson, Patricia M. Greenfield, Jenna C. Signorelli
Frontiers in Human Dynamics. 2020; 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 A Community-Based Participatory Approach to the Development and Implementation of an HIV Health Behavior Intervention: Lessons Learned in Navigating Research and Practice Systems from Project HAPPY
Rhonda C. Holliday, Romell Phillips, Tabia Henry Akintobi
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2): 399
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Predictors for Sexual Intercourse Experience among Runaway Female At-Risk Adolescents
So-Hyun Moon, Hyung-Ran Kim, Miok Kim
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11): 3913
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
             

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (540 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Development of s...
    Gender and adole...
    Adolescent sexua...
   Challenges faced
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed17875    
    Printed201    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded1135    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 65    

Recommend this journal