Journal of Human Reproductive Science
Home Ahead of Print Current Issue Archives
   Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size    Users online: 666


 
   Table of Contents     
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-63
 

Does Follicle-Stimulating hormone receptor polymorphism status affect In vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection results and live birth rate? A retrospective study


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Izmir, Izmir, Turkey
2 Department of Genetic Diagnostic Center, University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Izmir, Izmir, Turkey
3 Department of Histology and Embryology, University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Izmir, Izmir, Turkey
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Medicine Izmir, Turkey

Date of Submission17-Nov-2021
Date of Decision05-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance07-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Burak Bayraktar
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Izmir, Izmir
Turkey
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jhrs.jhrs_165_21

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 


Background: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a key role in fertility and shows its effect through the FSH receptor (FSHR), which is localized in cells. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy outcomes and responses to controlled ovarian stimulation according to FSHR polymorphism types. Study Setting and Design: The study was retrospective, and included patients who applied to the University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital in vitro fertilization (IVF) Unit during 2018 and 2019. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection and at the same time studied FSHR gene polymorphism in the genetic unit of our hospital were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for multiple comparisons of continuous variables. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables between groups. Results: A total of 143 patients who met our criteria were included in the study. 14% (n = 20) of the patients are also homozygous natural (Asn/Asn) type; 44.7% (n = 64) of the heterozygous mutant (Asn/Ser) type; 41.3% (n = 59) of them were homozygous mutant (Ser/Ser) type. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pregnancy rate per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer. A significant difference was observed between peak E2 and peak progesterone levels between Asn/Ser and Ser/Ser groups, and the levels of these hormones were lower in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.018 and P = 0.016, respectively). Ovarian responses were classified as poor (≤3 oocytes), normal (4-20 oocytes) and hyperresponse (≥20 oocytes) according to the oocyte count. Accordingly, the number of patients with poor response was higher in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.011). Conclusions: Ser/Ser polymorphism is characterised by a poor ovarian response. Despite this, polymorphisms in the FSHR gene do not seem to affect the results of pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer.


Keywords: Assisted reproductive techniques, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, in vitro fertilization, infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, polymorphism


How to cite this article:
Bayraktar B, Gulec ES, Kutbay YB, Kose C, Gur EB, Demir A. Does Follicle-Stimulating hormone receptor polymorphism status affect In vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection results and live birth rate? A retrospective study. J Hum Reprod Sci 2022;15:58-63

How to cite this URL:
Bayraktar B, Gulec ES, Kutbay YB, Kose C, Gur EB, Demir A. Does Follicle-Stimulating hormone receptor polymorphism status affect In vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection results and live birth rate? A retrospective study. J Hum Reprod Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 16];15:58-63. Available from: https://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2022/15/1/58/342097





   Introduction Top


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary gland in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) released from the hypothalamus. FSH is essential for gonadal development, access to sexual maturity and oocyte development and maturation during fertility. FSH plays a key role in fertility and shows its effect through the FSH receptor (FSHR), which is localized in cells.[1],[2] In the ovaries, the FSHR is expressed on granulosa cells.

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols applied during in vitro fertilization (IVF) are based on the use of gonadotropins. By using GnRH agonists and antagonists, premature ovulation and luteinization are prevented ahead of time and better control of the cycle is aimed. After COH, the goal is to get mature quality and enough follicles. In patients with similar characteristics, the unpredictability of different responses to COH has triggered pharmacogenetic research. Predicting the response of ovaries to COH is of great importance for the success of IVF. With pharmacogenetic studies, more than 1300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been detected on the FSHR gene in various ethnic groups, in encoded and non-coded regions.[3] Compared with Caucasians and Mediterraneans, Asians have a significantly lower variant of Ser680Ser polymorphism.[4] In recent years, the focus has been on Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), two polymorphisms thought to be important, and are the most studied polymorphisms.[2],[3]

Polymorphisms in the FSHR gene have been shown to affect the results of COH.[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] On a molecular basis, perhaps the rates of conception,[10],[11],[12] ongoing pregnancy and live birth may also vary according to the types of polymorphism.[13],[14],[15] This study aims at examining cycle results and live birth rates according to FSHR polymorphism types in women who underwent IVF by the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) method. In addition, basal hormone levels according to polymorphism types and ovarian responses to COH were also investigated in our study.


   Materials and Methods Top


Study design

The study was retrospective, and the included patients who applied to the University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital IVF Unit during 2018 and 2019, and underwent IVF-ICSI and at the same time studied FSHR gene polymorphism in the genetic unit of our hospital. Information and data were obtained from the hospital information management system and the medical records of the patients. The research was conducted in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. Ethics committee approval for the study was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital (approval number: 2018/16-8). Written informed consent for future data use was routinely obtained from all participants at admission.

Study participants

According to the inclusion criteria; the first IVF transfer was included, IVF application with ICSI technique, age between 18 and 40 years, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2, presence of both ovaries, normal karyotype of women and men were included in the study.

The exclusion criteria included; women who conceived with non-IVF-assisted reproductive techniques, women who had previous IVF transfer (without the first transfer), women who underwent conventional IVF technique (without ICSI method), diminished ovarian reserve and male infertility cases, patients with uterine anomaly (women with abnormal hysterosalpingography), and patients whose information could not be obtained and/or whose information was incomplete in the records.

On the twelfth day of transfer, β-hCG ≤5 mlU/ml was defined as negative pregnancy if β-hCG between 5 and 30 mlU/ml was defined as chemical pregnancy (net result: negative pregnancy) and β-hCG ≥30 mlU/ml was defined as positive pregnancy. Pregnancy losses before 12 weeks were defined as miscarriage, while pregnancies reaching 12 weeks and later as ongoing pregnancy. Newborns with a positive heart rate and a weight of ≥500 g were defined as live births.

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and in vitro fertilization-ET protocols

During COH, patients who used GnRH antagonist or long GnRH agonist protocols were evaluated. Our IVF unit mainly uses antagonist protocol.

Following the GnRH antagonist protocol in our clinic; on the 2nd or 3rd day of the menstrual cycle, the number of antral follicles is evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS). Blood samples are taken for basal FSH and E2. Considering the patient's age, BMI and the number of antral follicles (AF), 150–300 IU recombinant (GONAL-f ®; Merc-Serono, Darmstadt, Germany) or (Puregon ®; NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) or urinary (Fostimon ®; IBSA Institut Biochimique SA, Lugano, Switzerland) FSH is started. On the 6th day of the cycle, 0.25 mg cetrorelix (Cetrotide ®; Merc-Serono, Idron, France) is started. FSH and GnRH antagonists are continued until the day of the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration.

Following the long GnRH agonist protocol in our clinic; the number of AF is evaluated by TVUS on the 2nd or 3rd days of the cycle before treatment. Blood samples are taken for basal FSH and E2. The patient is administered oral contraceptive tablet and 1 mg leuprolide acetate (Lucrin ®; AbbVie, Saint-Remy-sur-Avre, France) is given daily for downregulation from the 21st day of the same cycle. With menstruation, the leuprolide acetate dose is reduced by 50% on the 2nd day of the cycle, 225–300 IU recombinant (GONAL-f ®; Merc-Serono, Darmstadt, Germany) or (Puregon ®; NV Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) or urinary (Fostimon ®; IBSA Institut Biochimique SA, Lugano, Switzerland) FSH is started. FSH and leuprolide acetate are continued until the day of hCG administration.

When three or more follicles are ≥18 mm, ovulation is triggered by 10.000 IU hCG (Ovitrelle ®; Merc-Serono, Modugno (Bari), Italy). Oocyte pick up (OPU) is performed 36 h after hCG injection since OPU, the luteal phase is supplemented intravaginally with daily progesterone (Crinone 8% ®, Merc-Serono, Watford (Hertfordshire), United Kingdom). Embryo transfer is performed on the third or fifth day after OPU (one embryo for patients <35, two embryos for patients ≥35 years old). On the twelfth day of transfer, β-hCG ≤5 mlU/ml was defined as negative pregnancy if β-hCG between 5 and 30 mlU/ml was defined as chemical pregnancy (net result: negative pregnancy) and β-hCG ≥30 mlU/ml was defined as positive pregnancy. Daily progesterone is continued until the 11th week of pregnancy.

Analysis of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphism

For DNA isolation, approximately 350 μl of peripheral blood is taken into sterile tubes containing K3EDTA and isolated with MagPurix Blood DNA Extraction Kit by MagPurix 12 Series (Zinexts Life Science Corp., Taiwan). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed in a volume of 25 μl containing 100 ng of sample DNA. HelixAmp™ Ready-2x-MultiPlex v2.0 (Nanohelix Corp., South Korea) master mix was used: 25 nM of each primer and 1 U of Taq polymerase were added to the master mix. The amplification protocol conditions selected were as follows: Initial denaturation at 95°C for 10 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30 s, annealing at 60°C for 45 s, extension at 72°C for 45 s and a final extension at 72°C for 7 min. PCR products were purified as follows: 5 μl PCR products were treated with 2 μl of ExoSAP-IT enzyme (USB Affymetrix, USA) at 37 °C for 30 min and at 80 °C for 15 min. Sequence PCR (cycle sequencing) was done by reverse PCR primer (5 pmol) and BigDye® Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Life Technologies, USA). The PCR conditions were as follows: At 96°C for 1 min, at 96°C 10 s, at 50°C for 5 s, at 60°C for 4 min the cycle was repeated 25 times. Products of sequence PCR were purified (second purification) by spin colon (ZR DNA Sequencing Clean-up Kit™, Zymo Research, USA). Sanger sequencing was performed by capillary electrophoresis after 5 min denaturation (3500 Genetic Analyzer, Life Technologies, USA). The resulting sequences were analysed using SeqScape® Software v3.0 (Applied Biosystems, USA).

Statistical analysis

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 22.0 version (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, US) package programme was used in the analysis of the data. Numerical data are presented as mean ± (Standard deviation) or n,%. Qualitative data were calculated as a percentage. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables between groups. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for multiple comparisons of continuous variables. If a significant difference was found as a result of the analysis, the homogeneity of the variances was checked to determine between which groups the difference was. If the variances were homogeneous, the Scheffe test was used. In cases where the Scheffe test did not determine between which groups the difference was, the Bonferroni test was used. Tamhane T2 test was used if the variances were heterogeneous. A 95% significance level (or α = 0.05 margin of error) was used to determine differences in the analyzes. The number of people required for this was made by power analysis with G-Power, which required a minimum of 19 people in each group.


   Results Top


A total of 143 patients who met our criteria were included in our study. Of these number, 14% (n = 20) of the patients were homozygous natural (Asn/Asn) type; 44.7% (n = 64) were heterozygous mutant (Asn/Ser) type; 41.3% (n = 59) of them were homozygous mutant (Ser/Ser) type.

The demographic and medical characteristics of the patients are presented in [Table 1]. In our study, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of female age, advanced female age (≥35 years), male partner age and BMI. The basal FSH, E2 and AF values (measured on the 2nd or 3rd day of the menstrual cycle) were statistically similar between the groups. Similarly, AF values were statistically similar between the groups.
Table 1: Demographic and medical characteristics of women involved in the study

Click here to view


The treatment characteristics of the patients are given in [Table 2]. Accordingly, a significant difference was observed between peak E2 (estradiol levels on the day of hCG injection), and peak progesterone (progesterone levels on the day of hCG injection) levels between Asn/Ser and Ser/Ser groups, and the levels of these hormones were lower in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.018 and P = 0.016, respectively). The E2 level measured on the day of OPU was significantly lower in the Ser/Ser group compared to the Asn/Ser group (P = 0.014). The number of oocytes collected on the day of OPU was the lowest in the Ser/Ser group, and the results were statistically significant (P = 0.009). Ovarian responses were classified as poor (≤3 oocytes), normal (4–20 oocytes) and hyperresponse (≥20 oocytes) according to the oocyte count. Accordingly, the number of patients with poor response was higher in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.011).
Table 2: Treatment characteristics of women participating in the study

Click here to view


The treatment results of the patients are examined in [Table 3]. Accordingly, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pregnancy rate per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer.
Table 3: Treatment outcomes of women participating in the study

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


In this study, clinical parameters, responses to COH and pregnancy outcomes of 143 patients who underwent IVF-ICSI were compared according to Asn680Ser polymorphism types. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pregnancy rate per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer.

There are 3.2 billion base pairs in the human genome, and the structure of the genome shows a 99.9% similarity between individuals.[16] SNPs are largely responsible for the 0.1% difference.[16] SNPs provide different results in the same environment. The population frequency of a particular polymorphism may vary by gender, race/ethnicity and geographic location. The FSHR gene is a 54 kb-sized single-copy gene. It is localized on chromosome 2p21-16.[1],[2] Many SNPs have been detected on the FSHR gene in encoded and non-encoded regions.[3] In recent years, the focus has been on two polymorphisms that are thought to be important: Thr307Ala (rs6165) and Asn680Ser (rs6166), and these polymorphisms are the most studied types.[2],[3] The presence of both polymorphisms on exon 10 causes a strong linkage disequilibrium (non-random combination of alleles) between them.[7] The fact that both polymorphisms are located in the same exonic region, combinations of p. Thr307-p. Asn680 and p. Ala307-p. Ser680 are inherited together, they bind to each other during recombination and do not show random distribution.[7] For this reason, we have focussed on only Asn680Ser polymorphism in this study.

Behre et al. prospectively evaluated the patient group who underwent conventional IVF and IVF-ICSI in their study in 2005. Accordingly, in terms of clinical pregnancy rate, all three groups were statistically similar, similar to our study.[10] Loutradis et al. in their prospective study in 2006, performed conventional IVF and IVF-ICSI on their patients, found no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of clinical pregnancy rate; similar to our study.[11] On the other hand, in the prospective study of Jun et al. in which they performed IVF-ICSI on their patients in 2006, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer was significantly higher in the Asn/Asn group. In the same study, the lowest clinical pregnancy rate was observed in the Ser/Ser group.[12] In 2006, Klinkert et al. enrolled only patients who underwent conventional IVF in their prospective study. They investigated pregnancy rates per started cycle, pregnancy rates per transfer and implantation rates per embryo transferred. In each of these three parameters, it was found that women with the Ser/Ser genotype were significantly higher than women with the Asn/Asn genotype.[13] In a retrospective study in 2019, Lindgren et al. examined women undergoing conventional IVF and IVF-ICSI. In the study where they examined 5-cycle follow-up, they did not observe any statistically significant difference between the groups in the first cycle and in all other cycles in terms of live birth rate according to FSHR types.[14] These results are similar to our study. In 2019, König et al. analysed women who underwent conventional IVF and IVF-ICSI.[15] According to FSHR polymorphism types, while the Asn/Asn group was the lowest in terms of ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer, the Asn/Ser group was the highest. In our study, the live birth rates in the Asn/Asn group were numerically lower, similar to the two studies,[13],[15] but unlike these studies, the results are not statistically significant. There may be various reasons for obtaining different results in many studies conducted so far. These differences may arise from the fact that the studies are conducted in different ethnic groups, the application of different stimulation protocols, or the study designs are different.

In this study, the basal FSH levels were statistically similar between the groups. In the literature, although there are those who argue that the basal FSH value is higher in the Ser/Ser group,[5],[6],[7],[11] recent studies[4],[8],[9],[17] argue that the difference between groups are statistically similar. Similar to our findings, other studies have not found any difference in the AF between different groups with FSHR.[5],[13],[15]

We observed the peak E2 level was highest in the Asn/Ser group and the lowest in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.018). Although the peak E2 value was the lowest in the Ser/Ser group in some studies, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant.[5],[12],[15] In one study, peak E2 was the lowest in the Asn/Ser group, but the differences between the groups were not significant.[7] In another study, the peak E2 value was highest in the Ser/Ser group, but the result was still not statistically significant.[13] Some studies,[5],[10] were similar to ours, where the peak E2 level was at the highest in the Asn/Ser group and the lowest in the Ser/Ser group, and the results were statistically significant. In addition, for the first time in the literature, we examined the E2 level before OPU, which was significantly higher in the Asn/Ser group (P = 0.014). Similarly, the number of oocytes collected on the day of OPU is higher in the Asn/Ser group (P = 0.009).

We divided the patients into three groups; poor, normal and hyper-responders according to their oocyte count. When evaluated depending on the genotype distribution, the number of patients with poor responses was significantly higher in the Ser/Ser group (P = 0.011). There are studies in the literature that have found similar results to ours,[4],[10] as well as studies arguing that all groups are similar in terms of poor response.[11],[13]

Our limitations are; our study is a retrospective study and with the limited number of patients. The stimulation protocols we used were not uniform. Polymorphisms may vary by race/ethnicity and geographic location, and we were only able to present local data. Our strengths are that our patient selection criteria are very strict, and we have minimised the difference between groups by including only ICSI cycles.

As a result, we can say that; although the Ser/Ser polymorphism is characterised by a poor ovarian response, polymorphisms in the FSHR gene do not seem to affect the results of pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per started cycle, ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer and live birth per embryo transfer. The results, however, pave the way for new studies, randomised controlled prospective and multi-centre studies are needed utilising FSHR polymorphism as a confounder for the ovarian response.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Data availability statement

The data supporting this study is available through the corresponding author upon reasonable request.



 
   References Top

1.
Simoni M, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E. The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: Biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and pathophysiology. Endocr Rev 1997;18:739-73.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Lussiana C, Guani B, Mari C, Restagno G, Massobrio M, Revelli A. Mutations and polymorphisms of the FSH receptor (FSHR) gene: Clinical implications in female fecundity and molecular biology of FSHR Protein and gene. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2008;63:785-95.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Laan M, Grigorova M, Huhtaniemi IT. Pharmacogenetics of follicle-stimulating hormone action. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2012;19:220-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kuijper E, Blankenstein M, Luttikhof L, Roek S, Overbeek A, Hompes P, et al. Frequency distribution of polymorphisms in the FSH receptor gene in infertility patients of different ethnicity. Reprod Biomed Online 2011;22:S60-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
de Castro F, Morón FJ, Montoro L, Galán JJ, Hernández DP, Padilla ES, et al. Human controlled ovarian hyperstimulation outcome is a polygenic trait. Pharmacogenetics 2004;14:285-93.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sudo S. Genetic and functional analyses of polymorphisms in the human FSH receptor gene. Mol Hum Reprod 2002;8:893-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Perez Mayorga M, Gromoll J, Behre HM, Gassner C, Nieschlag E, Simoni M. Ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation depends on the FSH receptor genotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:3365-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Achrekar SK, Modi DN, Desai SK, Mangoli VS, Mangoli RV, Mahale SD. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphism (Thr307Ala) is associated with variable ovarian response and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in Indian women. Fertil Steril 2009;91:432-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Mohiyiddeen L, Newman WG, McBurney H, Mulugeta B, Roberts SA, Nardo LG. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with ovarian reserve markers. Fertil Steril 2012;97:677-81.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Behre HM, Greb RR, Mempel A, Sonntag B, Kiesel L, Kaltwaer P, et al. Significance of a common single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 10 of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor gene for the ovarian response to FSH: A pharmacogenetic approach to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005;15:451-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Loutradis D, Patsoula E, Minas V, Koussidis GA, Antsaklis A, Michalas S, Makrigiannakis A. FSH receptor gene polymorphisms have a role for different ovarian response to stimulation in patients entering IVF/ICSI-ET programs. J Assist Reprod Genet 2006;23:177-84.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Jun JK, Yoon JS, Ku SY, Choi YM, Hwang KR, Park SY, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphism and ovarian responses to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF-ET. J Hum Genet 2006;51:665-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Klinkert ER, te Velde ER, Weima S, van Zandvoort PM, Hanssen RG, Nilsson PR, et al. FSH receptor genotype is associated with pregnancy but not with ovarian response in IVF. Reprod Biomed Online 2006;13:687-95.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Lindgren I, Nenonen H, Henic E, Bungum L, Prahl A, Bungum M, et al. Lundberg giwercman, gonadotropin receptor variants are linked to cumulative live birth rate after in vitro fertilization. J Assist Reprod Genet 2019;36:29-38.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
König TE, van der Lee J, Schats R, Lambalk CB. The relationship between FSH receptor polymorphism status and IVF cycle outcome: A retrospective observational study. Reprod Biomed Online 2019;39:231-40.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
1000 Genomes Project Consortium; Auton A, Brooks LD, Durbin RM, Garrison EP, Kang HM, et al. A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature 2015;526:68-74.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Yao Y, Ma C, Tang H, Hu Y. Influence of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) Ser680Asn polymorphism on ovarian function and in-vitro fertilization outcome: A meta-analysis. Mol Genet Metab 2011;103:388-93.  Back to cited text no. 17
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
             

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (619 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed328    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded46    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal