Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-111
The reproductive functions of the human brain regions: A systematic review

1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine; Reproductive Health Sciences Program, Pan African University of Life and Earth Sciences Institute (Including Health and Agriculture), PAULESI, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OjukwuUniversity, Uli Campus, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Nursing Sciences, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Complex, Ihiala, Anambra State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Izuchukwu Azuka Okafor
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, PMB 5001, Nnewi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jhrs.jhrs_18_22

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Reproduction remains a vital characteristic of living things necessary for survival and continuity. Specific brain regions and structures are responsible for regulating the different aspects of human reproduction. This study systematically reviewed the brain regions that play structural, hormonal and physiological roles in controlling the various aspects of human reproduction from puberty, sexual function, gametogenesis, childbirth and fertility to infertility to inform advancement in research and therapeutic interventions in human reproductive disorders. A systematic literature search of online databases (MEDLINE, Europe PMC and Google Scholar) was made using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for observational and cross-sectional studies providing evidence for the role(s) of the brain region in human reproduction from the year 2011–2021. Out of 141 articles found, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, including six cross-sectional and nine randomised controlled trials. The study acknowledged the roles of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and pineal gland, widely known for regulating the human reproductive system in a gender-based approach while highlighting essential gaps and opportunities for future research. This review provides a 10-year update and overview of the role of different brain regions in human reproduction and will stimulate future research in human reproduction.

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