Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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REVIEW ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 206-218
Sperm DNA fragmentation in reproductive medicine: A review

1 Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babyl, Iraq
2 Central Drug Research Institute, Male Reproductive Health Research Laboratory, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Garmian, Kalar, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ahmed T Alahmar
College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Babylon
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jhrs.jhrs_82_22

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Approximately 15% of the world's couples suffer from infertility during their reproductive period of which the male factor is responsible for 50% of cases. Male factor infertility is multifactorial in origin, and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) has also been linked to male infertility including idiopathic male infertility. Some degree of controlled DNA nicking is essential for adequate DNA compaction, but excessive SDF is usually associated with reduced male fertility potential, reduced fertilisation, poor embryo quality, recurrent pregnancy loss and poor assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) outcomes. Although semen analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis of male factor infertility worldwide, its limitations motivated the search and the development of complementary tests of sperm function and integrity. SDF assay is an emerging diagnostic tool in infertile men, and several indications for SDF testing in infertile couples have also been proposed. The use of SDF in routine male infertility assessment is, however, still controversial. Furthermore, both direct and indirect SDF tests are now available. Hence, the present review was conducted to summarise the recent evidence of SDF, underlying mechanisms, clinical indications, diagnostic tests, as well as the role of SDF in male factor infertility, pregnancy and ART outcomes.

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