Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2009| January-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 19, 2009

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Comparison of clinical features and health manifestations in lean vs. obese Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Abha Majumdar, Tejshree A Singh
January-June 2009, 2(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51336  PMID:19562068
Aims: To study the prevalence of clinical manifestations in obese and lean polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women and their health hazards. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care infertility clinic from 1.7.2005 till 31.12.2007. Materials and Methods: These women were diagnosed to have PCOS by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, Rotterdam 2003 criteria. They were further divided into two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): Group A (n = 300), overweight and obese with BMI >23 and Group B (n = 150), normal weight and lean with BMI ≤23. Stastical Analysis and Results: The prevalence of menstrual irregularities [79.2% vs. 44%, P = 0.000, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-0.44)] and clinical hyperandrogenism (74.2% vs. 50.6%, P = 0.000, 95% CI=0.14-0.32) was signifi cantly higher in the obese group, whereas android central obesity (waist to hip ratio >0.85) was similar in both groups, irrespective of body weight (47.7% vs. 38%, P = 0.056, 95% CI=0.06 to +0.18). Comparative data of various health manifestations in lean vs. obese women with POCS [Table 4]. Of the health risk manifestations, hypertension occurred in both groups with a similar frequency (41% vs. 35.5%, P = 0.261, 95% CI=0.03 to +0.15). Group A showed an increased prevalence of IGT (25% vs. 10%, P = 0.000, 95% CI= 0.13-0.29) and type two diabetes mellitus (11.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.000, 95% CI= 0.13-0.29) as compared with group B. endometrial hyperplasia (EH) also showed an increase prevalence in Group A compared with Group B (5.6% vs. 2%, P = 0.055, 95% CI= 0.01-0.08), although not statistically significant. Conclusion: PCOS emerges as a clinically heterogeneous condition with increased prevalence of health risks such as hypertension, diabetes and EH. Of these, diabetes and EH appear to be more prevalent in the obese, putting them at a greater risk of morbid problems at a much younger age than the lean ones.
  17 7,132 580
Successful pregnancy following medical management of heterotopic pregnancy
R Lavanya, K Deepika, Madhuri Patil
January-June 2009, 2(1):35-40
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51350  PMID:19562073
We present a case of sonographic demonstration of quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy consisting of twin intrauterine (IU) pregnancy and a twin adnexal pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI) with clomiphene citrate (CC) and timed intercourse (TI). Both heterotopic pregnancy and spontaneous twinning are frequent after OI, this combination although extremely rare must be kept in mind. The role of early transvaginal sonography and serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin after missed periods helps in early diagnosis. It gives us an opportunity for medical management, saving the patient the agony of surgery along with loss of pregnancy. The management of heterotopic pregnancy is controversial. This patient did not have a viable IU pregnancy and both the sacs in the adnexa were small. Thus, we treated her successfully by medical management with systemic methotrexate, with regular follow-up. This patient successfully conceived after 6 months with OI and TI, with ovulation occurring from the same side of the previous ectopic. She had a viable IU gestation corresponding to 12 weeks.
  16 9,541 350
The efficacy of metformin and clomiphene citrate combination compared with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction in infertile patients with PCOS
Papa Dasari, GK Pranahita
January-June 2009, 2(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51337  PMID:19562069
Context: Low ovulatory and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate (CC) in anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Aim: To find out the ovulatory and pregnancy rates in infertile PCOS subjects who receive CC alone and a combination of metformin and CC. Setting and Design: A prospective controlled clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department from August 2003 to August 2005. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four infertile PCOS women received CC alone at incremental doses of 50 mg up to 150 mg for three cycles and then at a dose of 150 mg for another three cycles (control group). The study group (16 PCOS) received the same dose of CC along with 1500mg of metformin. Ovulation was monitored by transvaginal sonography up to six cycles or till pregnancy occurred. Statistical Analysis: This was carried out using software SSPS, version 10. Fisher's exact test was used to calculate the ovulatory rates. Nine subjects of the control group who failed to conceive with CC had opted for CC and metformin and their ovulatory rate was calculated using statistical software, namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 using Fischer's exact test. Results: The metformin and clomiphene combination resulted in a significantly higher rate of ovulation ( P = 0.0016). The pregnancy rate was 8% with CC and 24% with metformin and CC. The CC failure group also ovulated at a similar rate as that of the study group. Conclusions: The ovulatory rate and the pregnancy rate with the metformin-CC combination was found to be higher when compared with CC alone. Metformin increased the ovulatory rate in CC failures, also implying increased sensitivity to CC.
  15 8,874 598
Blastocyst stage transfer vs cleavage stage embryo transfer
Ann M Mangalraj, K Muthukumar, TK Aleyamma, Mohan S Kamath, Korula George
January-June 2009, 2(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51339  PMID:19562070
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage embryo in a similar cohort of women. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: University teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Women aged 35 or less undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection between January 2005 and December 2006 were included in the study. When four or more grade 1 embryos were observed on day 3, extended culture till day 5 was undertaken. This policy was compared with a cohort of women who had at least three grade 1 embryos on day 3 and who had undergone a cleavage stage embryo transfer during the time period of January 2002-December 2004. Primary outcome evaluated was implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: Group 1 consisted of 50 women who underwent extended culture and blastocyst transfer. Group 2 comprised of 85 women who had cleavage transfer. The implantation rate for embryos transferred in group 1 was significantly higher than that for embryos transferred on day 3 (40.16% vs 11.43%). The clinical pregnancy rate was also significantly better with blastocyst transfer as compared with cleavage stage transfer (62% vs 29.76%). Significantly fewer embryos were required for transfer at the blastocyst stage compared with day 3 transfer (2.54 vs 3.45). Conclusion: In selected cases, blastocyst transfer with fewer embryos can be performed with high implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. This policy could lead to a reduction in the incidence of higher-order pregnancies.
  15 8,259 506
Assessing tubal damage
Madhuri Patil
January-June 2009, 2(1):2-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51335  PMID:19562067
The fallopian tube plays an important role in the mechanical transport and physiological sustenance of the gametes and early conceptus. Complex and coordinated neuromuscular activity, cilial action and endocrine secretions are required for successful tubal function. Compromised tubal damage can occur after external or internal injury, inhibiting the normal transport of gametes. The overall prognosis for fertility depends principally on the insult and the severity of the tissue damage; hence, assessment of tubal damage plays a major role in predicting occurrence of pregnancy and the likelihood of developing ectopic pregnancy.
  14 7,983 690
Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity
Emmanuel O Salawu, Olusola A Adeeyo, Olutunde P Falokun, Uthman A Yusuf, Abiodun Oyerinde, Anthony A Adeleke
January-June 2009, 2(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51346  PMID:19562072
Background: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. Aim: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum : Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: A Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyse the results obtained. Results: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life-death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. Conclusion: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress.
  9 6,129 445
Successful management of post- in-vitro fertilization cervical heterotropic pregnancy
Abha Majumdar, Shweta Mittal Gupta, Deepak Chawla
January-June 2009, 2(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51357  PMID:19562075
A case of post- in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cervical and intrauterine heterotropic pregnancy with cardiac activity in both embryos is presented. It was diagnosed in the 7 th week of gestation by ultrasonography and cervical pregnancy was treated conservatively with intrathoracic administration of potassium chloride under transvaginal ultrasound guidance with regression of trophoblastic tissue. The intrauterine pregnancy continued and cesarean section was performed in the 31 st week due to absent end diastolic umbilical artery fetal blood flow. A live male baby was delivered.
  8 3,845 261
Plasma protein thiols, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination
Krishnananda Prabhu, Pratap Kumar, Satish Kumar Adiga, Anjali Rao, Anupama Lanka, Jaipal Singh
January-June 2009, 2(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51341  PMID:19562071
Objective: To estimate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), protein thiols (PT), ceruloplasmin (CP) and C-reactive proteins (CRPs) to assess any change in their levels following intrauterine insemination (IUI). Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients aged 31 4.65 years (mean SD) with primary infertility selected for IUI. All of them had induced ovulation with clomiphene citrate 50 mg from day 2 to day 6. After taking the consent, 2 ml of blood was withdrawn before and after 24 h of IUI for biochemical estimations. Results: We observed a significant decrease in plasma CP, PT and RBC AChE ( P < 0.001) following IUI compared with the respective pre-procedure levels. Highly sensitive CRP showed a marginal increase after IUI. Conclusion: Fluctuations in levels of the above parameters point to their role in the female reproductive system and in the outcome of the IUI.
  2 4,210 284
Successful birth of the first frozen oocyte baby in India
Priya Selvaraj, Kamala Selvaraj, Kalaichelvi Srinivasan
January-June 2009, 2(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51354  PMID:19562074
We report the first pregnancy and birth in India after the transfer of embryos generated from frozen- thawed oocytes. A 29-year-old woman with previous bad obstetric history and an abnormal karyotype, necessitating donor oocyte programme. Embryos were generated by microinjection of frozen-thawed sperms into thawed human oocytes (intracytoplasmic sperm injection). This resulted in an healthy male baby with a birth weight of 2.54 kg which was born by cesarean section at 35-36 weeks of gestation with normal follow-up. Thus oocyte cryopreservation can be performed with reproducible success leading to a viable offspring.
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From the Editor's Desk
Kamini A Rao
January-June 2009, 2(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.51334  PMID:19562066
  - 2,775 280
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