Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2011| January-April  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 28, 2011

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An overview of randomization techniques: An unbiased assessment of outcome in clinical research
KP Suresh
January-April 2011, 4(1):8-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82352  PMID:21772732
Randomization as a method of experimental control has been extensively used in human clinical trials and other biological experiments. It prevents the selection bias and insures against the accidental bias. It produces the comparable groups and eliminates the source of bias in treatment assignments. Finally, it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood of chance as a source for the difference of end outcome. This paper discusses the different methods of randomization and use of online statistical computing web programming ( or to generate the randomization schedule. Issues related to randomization are also discussed in this paper.
  55,244 9,139 251
Predictive value of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows on the day of hCG by 2D doppler in in-vitro fertilization cycles: A prospective clinical study from a tertiary care unit
Neeta Singh, Anupama Bahadur, Suneeta Mittal, Neena Malhotra, Ashok Bhatt
January-April 2011, 4(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82357  PMID:21772737
Aims and Objectives : To evaluate the role of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows measured by 2D power Doppler ultrasound to predict pregnancy during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Study Design : Prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Materials and Methods : This was a prospective observational study. A total of 101 infertile women were recruited from our IVF-ET program from January to December, 2009. Women with tubal factor, male factor and unexplained infertility were included in the study. Results : The mean age was 35 years and mean duration of infertility was 8 years. Seventy five (74.25%) patients had primary infertility and 26 (25.74%) had secondary infertility. The mean endometrial thickness was 8.1 mm and endometrial blood flow was in Zone I in 18 patients, 28 patients had blood flow in Zone II and 54 had in Zone III. Overall, 27 (26.73%) patients conceived and in these women the endometrial thickness was between 6 and 12 mm. Conclusions : With a thin endometrium (≤7 mm) and no-triple-line endometrial pattern coexisting in an in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) candidate, cryopreservation should be recommended. With a thin endometrium and a good texture (triple-line), other prognostic factors, such as embryo quality, should be taken into account. The endometrial vascularity has a useful predictive value on the implantation rate in IVF cycles irrespective of the morphological appearance of the endometrium. However, further study is needed to make a definitive conclusion.
  22,148 603 26
Endometrial regeneration using autologous adult stem cells followed by conception by in vitro fertilization in a patient of severe Asherman's syndrome
Chaitanya B Nagori, Sonal Y Panchal, Himanshu Patel
January-April 2011, 4(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82360  PMID:21772740
In a woman with severe Asherman's syndrome, curettage followed by placement of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) (IUCD with cyclical hormonal therapy) was tried for 6 months, for development of the endometrium. When this failed, autologous stem cells were tried as an alternative therapy. From adult autologous stem cells isolated from patient's own bone marrow, endometrial angiogenic stem cells were separated using immunomagnetic isolation. These cells were placed in the endometrial cavity under ultrasound guidance after curettage. Patient was then given cyclical hormonal therapy. Endometrium was assessed intermittently on ultrasound. On development of endometrium with a thickness of 8 mm and good vascularity, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer was done. This resulted in positive biochemical pregnancy followed by confirmation of gestational sac, yolk sac, and embryonic pole with cardiac activity on ultrasound. Endometrial angiogenic stem cells isolated from autologous adult stem cells could regenerate injured endometrium not responding to conventional treatment for Asherman's syndrome.
  12,376 569 69
Ovarian torsion in infertility management - Missing the diagnosis means losing the ovary: A high price to pay
Sandhya Krishnan, Harpreet Kaur, Jyoti Bali, Kamini Rao
January-April 2011, 4(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82359  PMID:21772739
Ovarian torsion is a rare entity and the diagnosis is commonly missed. Here we present a series of two cases of ovarian torsion. First case followed the in vitro fertilization treatment, along with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, where even with timely intervention and laparoscopy, we had to compromise one ovary. Second case followed the ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination - where timely intervention helped us to save the ovary.
  11,003 283 4
Luteinizing hormone and its dilemma in ovulation induction
Pratap Kumar, Sameer Farouk Sait
January-April 2011, 4(1):2-7
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82351  PMID:21772731
Concept of a 'therapeutic window' of luteinizing hormone (LH) for successful conception in assisted reproductive technology and ovulation induction has been reviewed in this literature. The separate but complementary roles of follicle stimulating hormone and LH in stimulating folliculogenesis and ovulation are well established. Levels under which low LH concentrations may be equally or suboptimally needed for oocyte quality and subsequent embryonic development competence has been reviewed along with the data related to the high levels of LH promoting follicular atresia.
  10,374 778 21
Comparing thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates from cryopreserved zygotes, embryos and blastocysts
Mary Ellen Pavone, Joy Innes, Jennifer Hirshfeld-Cytron, Ralph Kazer, John Zhang
January-April 2011, 4(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82356  PMID:21772736
Context : Most in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs employ embryo cryopreservation to enhance pregnancies from a single ovarian stimulation. More embryos are created, some of which are not transferred to the uterus immediately, generating a need for improved cryopreservation protocols. One protocol may involve growing embryos to a further stage of development, allowing only embryos with proven developmental capabilities to be cryopreserved. Here we examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at different stages. Aims : We examined thaw survival, implantation and live birth rates of embryos cryopreserved at the zygote, day 3 (D3) embryos or blastocyst stage. Settings and Design : This is a retrospective study from a single academic IVF program. Patients and Methods :0 A retrospective study of all patients who had frozen embryos transferred to their uteri from year 2002 to 2008 at a single academic IVF program was conducted. Statistical Analysis Used : Analysis of variance followed by Fisher's Exact Test was performed to compare the survival after thaw, implantation and live birth rates between the three groups. Results : One thousand nine hundred and ninety-one zygotes, 2880 D3 embryos and 503 blastocysts were frozen using a slow freeze technique, thawed and transferred. Significantly more D3 embryos and blastocysts survived the thawing process compared to zygotes and significantly higher implantation rate per number of thawed blastocysts was achieved than that for zygotes. Live birth rates were similar between the three groups. Conclusions : Growing embryos to blastocyst stage prior to cryopreservation is associated with fewer frozen embryos but does not appear compromise patients' chance of achieving pregnancy
  7,546 254 12
Thyroid and its indispensability in fertility
Dilip Gude
January-April 2011, 4(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82368  PMID:21772747
  7,348 285 3
Do symptomatic endometriosis and uterine fibroids appear together?
Outi Uimari, Ilkka Järvelä, Markku Ryynänen
January-April 2011, 4(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82358  PMID:21772738
Objectives : Endometriosis and uterine fibroids are common gynecological disorders in fertile women. It has been suggested that these two disorders may be associated with each other. In this study, we tested whether this connection exists. In addition, we wanted to evaluate whether they both affect fertility independently of each other. Materials and Methods : The prevalence of endometriosis and uterine fibroids was investigated in three groups of patients: Symptomatic patients requiring surgery either for endometriosis (n=182), or for uterine fibroids (n=240) and asymptomatic patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization (n=183). The prevalences were examined in three age groups: 35-39 yrs, 40-44 yrs and ≥ 45 yrs. The significance of both diagnoses on fertility was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results :Uterine fibroids were detected in 25.8% (47/182) of patients with endometriosis. Endometriosis was detected in 19.6% (47/240) of patients with uterine fibroids. 5.5% (10/183) women undergoing sterilization had endometriosis and 19.3% (17/183) had uterine fibroids. Both uterine fibroids and endometriosis were, independently of each other, related to subfertility (OR, 95% CI: 3.8, 2.3-6.5; 6.8, 4.0-11.6, respectively). Conclusions : The results suggest that symptomatic endometriosis appears together with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Both diseases seem to decrease female fertility independently of each other.
  5,723 252 14
Generating receptive endometrium in Asherman's syndrome
Caroline E Gargett, David L Healy
January-April 2011, 4(1):49-52
Intrauterine administration of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells to a woman with thin endometrium refractory to estrogen stimulation regenerated her endometrium sufficiently to support a pregnancy. Or was it local endometrial damage induced by concurrent curettage that stimulated endogenous endometrial stem/progenitor cells into action? Or both?
  5,612 354 7
Efficacy of 2-hour post glucose insulin levels in predicting insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome with infertility
Pikee Saxena, Anupam Prakash, Aruna Nigam
January-April 2011, 4(1):20-22
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82355  PMID:21772735
Background : Insulin resistance (IR) is central to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but tests for determining IR are elaborate, tedious and expensive. Aims : To evaluate if "2-hour post-glucose insulin level" is an effective indicator of IR and can aid in diagnosing IR in infertile PCOS women. Settings and Design : Observational study at infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods : 50 infertile women with PCOS and 20 females with tubal/male factor infertility were evaluated for the presence of IR, as defined by the fasting/2-hour post-glucose insulin levels cutoffs of >25/>41 μU/mL, respectively. The clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic profile was determined in both the groups. Statistical Analysis : Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA). Results : Body mass index, post load glucose, insulin, glucose/insulin ratio, area under curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin and insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the controls as compared to the PCOS group. "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" were elevated in 88% of PCOS individuals but were normal in all females not suffering from PCOS. These levels significantly correlated with AUC of glucose and insulin, and insulinogenic index and inversely correlated with 2-hour glucose to insulin ratio (r=0.827, 0.749 and −0.732, respectively). Conclusions : "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" appears to be a good indicator of IR. It can be a useful tool, especially in low resource setting where a single sample can confirm the diagnosis, thus reducing cost and repeat visits.
  5,347 288 8
Use of versapoint to refashion the cervical canal to overcome unusually difficult embryo transfers and improve in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer outcome: A case series
Nalini Mahajan, Ila Gupta
January-April 2011, 4(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82353  PMID:21772733
Background : Smooth atraumatic embryo transfer is paramount for the success of in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In difficult cases, cervical canal manipulation may be required. Aim : To see if surgical correction of the cervical canal or cervical canal refashioning could improve ease of embryo transfer. Setting : Private infertility and IVF hospital. Design : Prospective study. Materials and Methods : Patients: 11 women with failed 1-3 IVF cycles with history of extremely difficult embryo transfers (ETs) despite undergoing cervical dilatation in the cycle prior to IVF. Interventions : Operative hysteroscopy using Versapoint for refashioning of the cervical canal. Main Outcome Measures : Ease of ET in the subsequent IVF cycle. Secondary outcome measure was to assess reproductive outcome. Results : Easy and atraumatic ET in the IVF cycle after procedure in 100% patients. PR was 46.5%. Conclusions : Use of Versapoint for refashioning the cervical canal can improve the quality of ET and PR.
  5,235 180 5
A first case of primary amenorrhea with i(X)(qter---q10::---qter), rob(13;14)(q10;q10), inv(9)(p13q33) karyotype
Seema Korgaonkar, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Babu Rao Vundinti
January-April 2011, 4(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82362  PMID:21772742
Primary amenorrhea (PA) refers to the absence of menarche by the age of 16-18 years although secondary sexual characters are developed. PA occurs in 1-3% of women in the reproductive age group. Various factors such as anatomical, genetic and hormonal factors reported to influence PA. We report triple chromosomal abnormalities of rob(13;14)(q10;q10),inv(9)(p13q33), i(Xq)(qter---q10::---qter) in a case of PA and short stature. Though proband has multiple chromosome aberrations, genotypic effect of only i(Xq) is evident as proband has PA and short stature. The rob(13;14) and inv(9), which are paternally derived may have role in later reproductive age. Therefore, chromosomal analysis is essential in such cases for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease.
  4,811 194 2
Role of anti-human lymphocyte culture cytotoxic antibodies in recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss women
Shankarkumar Umapathy, Aruna Shankarkumar, Vanita Ramrakhiyani, Kanjaksha Ghosh
January-April 2011, 4(1):17-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82354  PMID:21772734
Background : Recurrent spontaneous pregnancy (RSA) is defined as a sequence of three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. One of the major causes of RSA is immunological where alloimmune antibodies develop towards human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens. Earlier research had suggested that anti-HLA antibodies are produced in normal women; studies have been reported that normal pregnant women develop anti-HLA antibodies, mostly after 20-28 weeks of gestation. Aim : To evaluate the role of anti-HLA antibodies in RSA patients Materials and Methods : A total of 80 randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSA and control group of 50 normal pregnant women were screened for anti-HLA A and B antibodies. The anti-HLA antibodies were analyzed following the standard two-stage NIH microlymphocytotoxicity assay. Results : In our study group a high frequency of anti-HLA antibodies among women with RSA (26.25%) was detected compared to normal pregnant women (8.0%). Most of the sera showed HLA-A and HLA-B antibodies which had high titer, up to a dilution of 1: 4096. Conclusion : This incidence of high anti-HLA antibodies in RSA women during early weeks of gestation may explain the recurrent pregnancy loss.
  3,414 188 5
Bromocriptine or cabergoline induced pituitary apoplexy: Rare but life-threatening catastrophe
Pratibha Singh, Manish Singh, Goutham Cugati, Ajai Kumar Singh
January-April 2011, 4(1):59-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82367  PMID:21772748
  3,426 156 2
Endometrial osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis
Prem Singh, Kalyani Kapur, Shveta Singla, Navneet Naz
January-April 2011, 4(1):56-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82363  PMID:21772743
  3,301 140 5
Not only seminal plasma zinc but also other trace elements affect semen quality
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-April 2011, 4(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82365  PMID:21772746
  2,817 254 -
From the Editor's Desk
Kamini Rao
January-April 2011, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82350  PMID:21772730
  2,673 166 -
To 'umbrella' the gonads in transfusion rain
Dilip Gude
January-April 2011, 4(1):60-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82369  PMID:21772749
  2,518 130 -
Filariasis in follicular fluid: A new concern of tropical infection in reproductive health
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-April 2011, 4(1):57-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82364  PMID:21772744
  2,088 124 -
Malaria and semen quality: An issue in reproductive health?
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-April 2011, 4(1):58-58
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.82366  PMID:21772746
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