Journal of Human Reproductive Science
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   2016| April-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 6, 2016

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Pregnancy at 65, risks and complications
Shailja Verma, Krishna Agarwal, Gauri Gandhi
April-June 2016, 9(2):119-120
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183507  PMID:27382238
A 65-year-old postmenopausal pregnant woman was referred with antepartum hemorrhage at 29 weeks of gestation. Postadmission diagnosed with chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease, and placenta previa. Her pregnancy was terminated by cesarean delivery at 32 weeks as she had a bout of bleeding per vaginum. Most of the placenta was adherent with no plane of cleavage; therefore, cesarean hysterectomy was performed. Baby birth weight was 1650 g and was shifted to nursery for observation and mother needed Intensive Care Unit care postcesarean. On the 15th day, both healthy mother and baby were discharged. Although pregnancy is possible in postmenopausal women with hormone support but the incidence of complications remain very high. It raises a need for developing well-laid guidelines for performing in vitro fertilization in older age group women.
  14,754 208 1
Poor ovarian reserve
Padma Rekha Jirge
April-June 2016, 9(2):63-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183514  PMID:27382229
Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.
  8,418 895 31
Effective treatment protocol for poor ovarian response: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Yadava Bapurao Jeve, Harish Malappa Bhandari
April-June 2016, 9(2):70-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183515  PMID:27382230
Poor ovarian response represents an increasingly common problem. This systematic review was aimed to identify the most effective treatment protocol for poor response. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from 1980 to October 2015. Study quality assessment and meta-analyses were performed according to the Cochrane recommendations. We found 61 trials including 4997 cycles employing 10 management strategies. Most common strategy was the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant), and was compared with GnRH agonist protocol (17 trials; n = 1696) for pituitary down-regulation which showed no significant difference in the outcome. Luteinizing hormone supplementation (eight trials, n = 847) showed no difference in the outcome. Growth hormone supplementation (seven trials; n = 251) showed significant improvement in clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.13 (95% CI 1.06–4.28) and 2.96 (95% CI 1.17–7.52). Testosterone supplementation (three trials; n = 225) significantly improved CPR (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.16–5.04) and LBR (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.01–4.68). Aromatase inhibitors (four trials; n = 223) and dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation (two trials; n = 57) had no effect on outcome.
  7,704 699 22
Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis
Gaurav Majumdar, Abha Majumdar, Meena Lall, Ishwar C Verma, Kailash C Upadhyaya
April-June 2016, 9(2):94-100
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183512  PMID:27382234
CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis.
  5,904 271 1
Effect of myomectomy on endometrial cavity: A prospective study of 51 cases
Shilpa Bhandari, Ishita Ganguly, Pallavi Agarwal, Aparna Singh, Nitika Gupta
April-June 2016, 9(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183509  PMID:27382236
CONTEXT: Fibroids are the most common tumors of the uterine cavity. Most of them are diagnosed during the reproductive age when the fertility is an important concern for the female. However, complications can occur after removal of fibroid (myomectomy) too for future pregnancy. Though myomectomy has been sighted as a cause of intrauterine adhesions data regarding the effect of myomectomy on endometrial cavity is lacking. AIMS: Evaluate the incidence of intrauterine adhesion formation after myomectomy and to identify the associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, hysteroscopy was done in 51 infertile patients who had undergone myomectomy 3 months before in a tertiary care center from 2012 to 2015. The presence of intrauterine adhesions noted on hysteroscopy was investigated on the basis of size, number, location and type of fibroid removed, along with intraoperative breach of the uterine cavity. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Chi-square test was used for the calculating significant difference in frequency of discrete variables in two groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Intrauterine adhesions were seen in 11 out of 51 (21.57%) cases. No significant relationship between intrauterine adhesions and type, size or number of fibroid was observed. No statistical difference in the rate of adhesion formation was seen irrespective of breach of the uterine cavity during myomectomy. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine adhesion formation after myomectomy is not related to the type of surgery or the nature of fibroid. However, in all cases desiring fertility postoperative hysteroscopy is highly recommended to diagnose and treat these adhesions early.
  5,693 273 9
Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study
Nalini Mahajan, Shilpa Sharma, Puneet Rana Arora, Shalu Gupta, Kumkum Rani, Padmaja Naidu
April-June 2016, 9(2):101-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183506  PMID:27382235
BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH) <4 ng/ml, antral follicle counts (AFCs)/ovary <12. The study excluded high responders-AMH >4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816), the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588), fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390), and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991). CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.
  5,441 358 9
Morphokinetic behavior of euploid and aneuploid embryos analyzed by time-lapse in embryoscope
Deven V Patel, Preeti B Shah, Aditi P Kotdawala, Javier Herrero, Irene Rubio, Manish R Banker
April-June 2016, 9(2):112-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183511  PMID:27382237
BACKGROUND: Embryonic aneuploidy may result in miscarriage, implantation failure, or birth defects. Thus, it is clinically necessary to avoid the selection of aneuploid embryos during in vitrofertilization treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the morphokinetic differences by analyzing the development of euploid and aneuploid embryos using a time-lapse technology. We also checked the accuracy of a previously described model for selection of euploid embryos based on morphokinetics in our study population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective study of 29 cycles undergoing preimplantation genetic screening from October 2013 to April 2015 at our center. Of 253 embryos, 167 suitable for biopsy embryos were analyzed for their chromosomal status using array-comparative genome hybridization (CGH). The morphokinetic behavior of these embryos was further analyzed in embryoscope using time-lapse technology. RESULTS: Among the analyzed embryos, 41 had normal and 126 had abnormal chromosome content. No significant difference in morphokinetics was found between euploid and aneuploid embryos. The percentage of embryos with blastulation was similar in the euploid (65.85%, 27/41) and aneuploid (60.31%, 76/126) embryos (P = 0.76). Although hard to define, majority of the chromosomal defects might be due to meiotic errors. On applying embryo selection model from Basile et al., embryos falling within optimal ranges for time to division to 5 cells (t5), time period of the third cell cycle (CC3), and time from 2 cell division to 5 cell division (t5-t2) exhibited greater proportion of normal embryos than those falling outside the optimal ranges (28.6%, 25.9%, and 26.7% vs. 17.5%, 20.8%, and 14.3%). CONCLUSION: Keeping a track of time interval between two stages can help us recognize aneuploid embryos at an earlier stage and prevent their selection of transfer. However, it cannot be used as a substitute for array CGH to select euploid embryos for transfer.
  5,317 377 14
Postmortem sperm retrieval in context of developing countries of Indian subcontinen
Asit Kumar Sikary, OP Murty, Rajesh V Bardale
April-June 2016, 9(2):82-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183510  PMID:27382231
There was a request for postmortem sperm retrieval (PMSR) from the wife of a deceased, but we had to decline. We have no guideline in place for the procedure in such cases. When we explored the international scenario on the issue of PMSR, we found that most of the developed countries have their guidelines about it, whether to allow or not to. There is not guideline available in developing countries, as such, for the procedure and various medical, legal, and social issues related thereto. In this article, we have explored the status of postmortem retrieval and feasibility of the procedure in developing countries of Indian subcontinent.
  4,749 249 -
Pilot initiative in India to explore the gonadal function and fertility outcomes of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors
Puneet Rana Arora, Ruchira Misra, Sumit Mehrotra, Charu Mittal, Sonal Sharma, Poonam Bagai, Ramandeep Singh Arora
April-June 2016, 9(2):90-93
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183508  PMID:27382233
CONTEXT: Steady improvement in childhood cancer outcomes has led to a growing number of survivors, many of who develop long-term sequelae. There is limited data about these sequelae (including those related to fertility) on childhood cancer survivors from India. AIMS: We undertook a prospective pilot study on childhood cancer survivors from India to assess their gonadal function and fertility. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pediatric oncologist and a reproductive medicine specialist assessed 21 childhood cancer survivors. The risk of infertility was established using disease and treatment variables. Current status of puberty, sexuality, and fertility were assessed using clinical and biochemical parameters. Outcomes were correlated with risk group of infertility. Information was also ascertained on counseling with regards to risk of infertility. RESULTS: The cohort included 21 survivors (71% males) with a median age of 18 years who were off treatment for a median age of 7 years. Ten (48%) survivors were at low risk for infertility, 9 (43%) at medium risk and 2 (9%) at high risk. Gonadal dysfunction was seen in 3 (14%) survivors: 0/10 (0%) low risk, 1/9 (11%) medium risk, and 2/2 (100%) high risk. None of the survivors, who are at high risk or medium risk of infertility, received any counseling before treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective pilot study of a cohort of childhood cancer survivors from India demonstrates a deficiency in the information provided and counseling of patients/families at the time of diagnosis with regards to the risk of infertility. Fertility outcomes of childhood cancer survivors were congruent with recognized risk groups for infertility. Future action points have been identified.
  3,970 217 2
From the Editor's desk
Madhuri Patil
April-June 2016, 9(2):61-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183503  PMID:27382228
  3,732 219 -
Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G/A polymorphism with recurrent miscarriages in women
Neha Sudhir, Badaruddoza , Archana Beri, Anupam Kaur
April-June 2016, 9(2):86-89
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183516  PMID:27382232
BACKGROUND: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is the most common pregnancy loss in the first trimester affecting approximately 0.5–2% of women. It is a heterogeneous condition and remains an enigma as the underlying cause is still difficult to track down. AIM: This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) 308G/A polymorphism and its association with RM in females. The comparative picture was also demonstrated by comparing genotyping results with healthy control women having no history of miscarriage. METHODS: This clinical study was conducted among 115 women aged 21–44 years with history of recurrence of miscarriage. The samples were collected from women attending the outpatient departments of various hospitals, nursing homes, and infertility clinics of this region. In the present study, 111 fertile healthy women aged 24–46 years with at least one live birth and no history of miscarriage were also included. RESULTS: Mean age of women with RM was found to be 28 ± 5.6 years by recall method, whereas it was found to be 30 ± 7.4 in context to healthy women with no history of pregnancy loss. In the present study, 66% of women with RM had homozygous wild type genotype (GG) while 30% and 4% of women had heterozygous (GA) and homozygous mutant genotype (AA), respectively. Among control group, 79%, 16%, and 5% of women showed GG, GA, and AA genotype, respectively. CONCLUSION: The current study supports the concept of TNF-α 308G/A variant in particular with reproductive failure, GG and GA alleles showing 1-fold risk association with RM (odds ratio: 1.86 and 1.43, respectively).
  3,713 238 4
Successful birth of South India's first twins after preimplantation genetic screening of embryos
Priya Selvaraj, Kamala Selvaraj, Kalaichelvi Srinivasan, Mahalakshmi Sivakumar
April-June 2016, 9(2):121-124
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183513  PMID:27382239
We report the first documented successful birth of twins following preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of cleavage stage embryos by array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technology, in South India. The case was a 28-year-old woman with the previous history of preclinical pregnancy and a miscarriage in two attempted in vitro fertilization cycles. Day 3 cleavage stage embryos were generated by conventional long protocol with the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and a combination of recombinant folliculotropins and human menopausal gonadotropins. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection of oocytes thus obtained was performed, and 10 selected embryos underwent PGS using the array CGH technique. Two normal blastocysts were transferred to the patient, and she conceived twins. She delivered at 35 weeks of gestation by elective cesarean on November 19, 2014. She delivered a healthy male and female baby weighing 2.19 kg and 2.26 kg, respectively. Postnatal evaluation of babies was also normal, and the hospital course was uneventful. PGS has a definitive indication in assisted reproductive technology programs and can be utilized to improve pregnancy rates significantly.
  3,715 152 -
A rare balanced nonrobertsonian translocation involving acrocentric chromosomes: Chromosome abnormality of t(13;15)(p11.2;q22.1)
Dalvi Rupa, Koppaka Neeraja, Chavan Deepak, Mandava Swarna
April-June 2016, 9(2):128-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183505  PMID:27382241
BACKGROUND: Balanced non-robertsonian translocation (RT), involving acrocentric chromosomes, is a rare event and only a few cases are reported. Most of the RTs are balanced involving acrocentric chromosomes with the breakpoints (q10;q10). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromosome analysis was performed as per standard procedure – Giemsa-trypsin banding with 500 band resolution was analyzed for chromosome identification. RESULTS: In the present study, we report a rare balanced non-RTs involving chromosomes 13 and 15 with cytogenetic finding of 46, XX, t(13;15)(p11.2;q22.1). CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report of an unusual non-RT of t(13:15) with (p11.2;q22.1) break points.
  3,598 202 1
An eventful journey from menarche to successful motherhood
Salil B Chakrabarti, Maureen P Tigga, Jayanta Ray, Amulya Debbarma
April-June 2016, 9(2):125-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183504  PMID:27382240
Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome is an uncommon variant of mullerian duct anomaly and the approach to its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and vigilant work up. Presented here is a case of a 26yearold woman who had the aforementioned anomaly and was pursued for nearly 10 years to provide her with a fruitful obstetric outcome after having undergone Strassman's metroplasty at a young age of 15 years.
  3,421 160 -
Erratum: Microdeletion of Y chromosome as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss

April-June 2016, 9(2):131-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.183527  PMID:27382242
  2,798 134 -
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